The importance of aims and objectives of education is recognised by all the educational, professional, political, nonpolitical and religious associations, organisations and groups at various levels in their memoranda, letters and brouchures. It is said that education without clear cut aims is like a rudderless ship. The following comparisons emphasise this point fully well.
Every pilot has a route-chart and set timing of landing at predetermined destination. There is constitution or set of Principles and traditions through which a country is governed Similarly, there should be properly defined and declared principles, aims and objectives of education or the basis of which policies and programmes of education nave to be formulated to achieve the set goals wit out wasting scarce energies and resources in chasing the wild goose.
It is generally felt that our educational system has not followed the desired aims as a result that it does not produce ideal citizens in the country. It has followed, rather a narrow aim of preparing individuals for livelihood, as mentioned in one of the documents received from an organisation.
The main reason of failure of educational system is that it basically stands or, pre-independence system. The main Objective of its products was how to take degree and to earn money and to be careerist without consideration of ethical values and national spirit.
On the other hand, it has also been pointed out that it is unressonable to criticise educational system alone because it is based on the other subsystems accepted by us.
On the one hand we are developing and cultivating the British given economy, judicial system and system of administration and parliament, and on the other we are decrying and Criticising the education system which merely fulfils the needs of the British systems that we are propagating.
As pointed out in a memorandum of an association, "the main defect of the old. education policy.is that it had completely ignored the Indian culture and the interest of the masses of India and have left them economically too backward and socially too fragmented to articulate their miseries...."
The aims and objectives of education, suggested in the documents, include individual as well as social aimds, with emphasis of social transformation aiming at reconstructing society to make it modernised, productive, partidipative, and value oriented nation committed to its constitutional obligations.
Development of an individual - physically, mentally and spritually is well known aim of education. Objectives related to this aim of individual development have been expressed in various ways in the memoranda:
- Developing physical and mental faculties
- Acquiring the capacities of understanding, appreciation and expression through word and act, are the fundamental aims of education
- Aim of education should be to make children self- confident and self dependent, and to make them strong physically and mentally
- Education is meant to develop every child's character, personality and culture and as much knowledge as the child can assimilate not merely memorize.
The best expression of complete development of an individual and the harmonious development of personality, however, is found in the following paragraph.
The policy should be directed to the aim of enlightenment of head and heart; illumination of consciousness for allround development of individual personality. Education should enable a human being to attain the greatest possible harmony, internal and external, spiritual and material, for the fullest possible development of human potentialities and capacities.
Social, aim of education in equally important because an individual lives in society and has his obligations towards his nation. There is a realisation that, "The present education system does riot yield required results mainly because it is divorced from the real social content and social goals".
It has, therefore, been suggested that education should be able, to discharge its natural functions and must correspond to its structure, goals and content in the interest of national development and social progress. It has also been suggested in this connection that students from young age should be made aware of the social responsibility cast on them.
At the same time, there are certain constitutional commitments, which are intimately related to this aim.. We as the citizens of the republic, are constitutionally Committed to democracy, social justice, equality of opportunity, secularisum and above all to a welfare state. It has, therefore, been suggested that, "Educational policy and educational programme should clearly reflect these commitments".
The objectives of developing a sense of national identity, unity and patriotism are advocated by many associations. It is pointed out that the national objectives of planning and programmes and development with special emphasis on popular participation and the national problems that we face in different fields should. be taught at relevant stages.
Individual and social aims of education area not contrary to one another. In fact they are complementary to one another. The following view strikes a balance between individual and social aims of education.
The purpose of education should be the development of the fullest possible capacities and potentialities physical and spiritual of a `total man'. It should make a man capable of earning his
livelihood reasonably well to enjoy a happy and secure life while making effective contributions to the society and national effort of making India strong# advanced and prosperous.
Education should not merely equip an individual to adjust with society to its customs and conventions, but it should enable him to bring desirable changes in the society. It has been, therefore, suggested that, "Every educational institution from secondary school to university college should be developed to become an agency of change...."
However, it is essential that we should be quite clear about the purpose of change. It is, therefore, natural to ask the, question, "Reform and change to achieve what"? What type of society we aim at and what type of citizens we wish to produce? The following ideas give an indication of the kind of changes education is expected to bring about.
Modernisation of society in terms of scientific and technological advancement is a view which seems to be quite popular. It is though that education should enable us to move with times and attain excellence in, science and technology. To quote an expression of this kind.
Scientific and technological advances are, gaining momentum and conscious efforts are made to incorporate them into the development sectors. This calls for modernisation of education in order to make. it in conformity with the modern times and to keep pace, with the advances in the world.
Modernisation, however, is not interpreted and equated with westernisation. In fact, lot of emphasis is given to `Indianness' while talking about modernisation. One of the suggestions explicitly points out that, hour education should integrate and unite the people of India, modernise society while preserving what is authentically Indian in our cultural and spiritual heritage".
The following suggestion beautifully reconciles the twin objectives of modern technical sophistication and the ancient spirituality.
"New education policy of India should be built on the foundation of ancient spirituality and modern culture and technical sophistication. It should develop scientific temper and spirit of enquiry in the students".
Some documents have insisted on linking education with productivity and thus making individuals as productivie citizens to build a productive society. One of the suggestions, in a memorandum, for example, says. "It should bring about a social transformation, and enhance greater efficiency and productivity in all sectors : agri- cultural, industrial and service". It is in this context that Mahatma Gandhi's system of basic education is still considered as a basically sound system and a suggestion has been made that with necessary modification elements of basic education may form part of education not only at the primary stage but at all stages in our national system of education. These elements are:
1. Productive activity in education.
2. Correlation of the curriculum with productive activity and physical and social environment.
3. Intimate contact between the school and the local community.
In a democracy education without community participation is barren. This aim of education is, therefore voiced by a number of groups and organisations. The change that is envisaged on this front is that of Integrating education with community in all respects. To quote a suggestion in this regard:
The education system in all its branches and sectors should get itself involved in activities related to problems of local Community life and shall thus endeavour through the desirable community participation community involvement in the educational field to bring all education of its rightful place in community life.
moral, cultural and spiritual values in education have been given immense importance in the Memoranda documents. One of the expressions emphatically point out that, "certain basic values as respect for others, responsibility, solidarity, creativity and integrity must be fostered in our children".
It is interesting that a number of specific values have been suggested in the documents. The values which are considered important are mentioned below:
Emphasis should be given in cultivating good qualities like cooperation, good will, forgiveness, tolerance, honesty, patience etc. in order to encourage universal brother-hood and to prepare students worthy citizens of the country.
Values of optimism and secularism, and service to the poor should be stressed on the young minds.
It is worth reproducing what a document mentions about the aims of education:
The aim of education is two-fold (i) Development of the individual in society and (ii) Consequent development of the society. The aim of education in relation to individual may be spelt out as follows:
i) to produce full human personality with courage, conviction, vitality, sensitivity and intelligence so that men and women may life in harmony with the universe;
ii) to bring out the fullest potential of child and prepare him. for life and its varied situations so that he becomes a cultured and responsible citizen dedicated in the service of community.
In relation to the society, the aim of education is to create:
i) a sane and learning society where made of material production will be such that no section of the society remains unemployed. In the Indian context such a made of
production will be necessarily based on a decentralised economy utilising all available manpower;
ii) a society. where the conditions of work and general environment will offer psychic satisfactions and effective motivations to its members.
iii) a society reconciling technological and scientific advancement with general well-being and securit of its members, enhancing joy of life and eliminating all forms of exploitation.
The broad objective of education should, therefore, be to look beyond the existing society and to develop men and. women amenable to the advent of a sane and healthier society of tomorrow.
While summing up, it may be pointed out that various dimensions individual and social development, social transformation, value- acquisition etc. have been well identified in the memoranda documents. The following words briefly summarise the various dimensions which are considered important indeed for marching into the 21st century:
We are of the opinion that Indian education should aim at producing men and women of knowledge, character and cultural values and trained skills to achieve excellence in their career and life. Let us make it clear that we wish to prepare youth to march into the 21st century on the ideals of truth and non-voilence as shown to us by our great leaders.
Aim of Education: Personality Integration, Creative Intelligence
and Enlightenment or 'Happiness'
Theme: The aim of education in the fullest and deepest sense of the word is to foster natural human psychological growth and development for personal maturity of moral consciousness or 'conscience' in conjunction with the unfolding of human potential in conditions of personal freedom as inner freedom.Mature rational conscience as the 'human spirit' provides the acute sense of responsibility to oneself and to others. It is the defining characteristic of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'. Complete actualisation of human nature or 'humanisation' is human 'awakening', 'enlightenment' or 'happiness' as a function of the cultivation and development of both reasonof understanding andwisdom of compassion to result in moral or 'spiritual' intelligence which is perceptive, intuitive creative and therefore effectively adaptive. The cultivation of creative intelligence emerges from authentic meaningful experiential learning as a function of motivation driven by intrinsic psychological motives of learning behaviour or 'human needs. Intrinsic motivation of humanised individuals is required for creative and effective adaptation... adaptability... to changes in the social environment upon which species survival depends. In light of these principles it is necessary to find a new model for educational practice or more precisely a model of theory in practice or praxis.
"The primaryaim of education is to enable the child to be resourceful in the solution of the problems connected with his own needs." (Ovide Decroly)
"The finest ideal for a generation is to strive that the generation that follows it may be able to live and enjoy more beauty and more happiness; it is to reduce the causes of misunderstanding, stupid prejudices, unnecessary suffering, useless conflicts. This is the ideal of education. Without it the very purpose of man's existence vanish. If there were not the child to bring up, protect, to teach, and to transform into the man of tomorrow, the man of today would be meaningless and could disappear. The child is the future.We shape him for the future." (Ovide Decroly)
traditional paradigm... aims of education in terms of political ideology... so-called 'dichotomy society / individual... ideals prevent understanding of the present...
integration of outcome and process...
The aim of education is to foster the development of inner freedom (freedom from fear and conflict)...
maturity as personality integration...
non-traditional and innovative education (essay) ...
What is education? Discussion of the aim of education is a function of the philosophy of education or 'educational theory'. The different understandings of education cultivate different avenues of human possibility.
The root of the word 'education' is derived from the Latin 'e-ducare' literally meaning to 'lead forth' or bring out something which is potentially present. Education in the true sense is an activity, an endeavor, an enterprise which is related to the notion of bringing up, rearing, leading forth. It is the human endeavor of self-development towards self-realization, self-actualization, self-fulfillment, self-transcendance. It involves the human aspiration for enlightenment or 'happiness' and the life of values which transcend the world of materialsm and economics. Education is a quest for meaning, integration, wholeness and the renewal of eroded human values which are necessary for responsible action. True educationas education for humanisation is helping the individual to be and free to flower, to bloom, to blossom in love and goodness and so to become fully mature or ‘human’.
What is the aim of education? In the history of philosophy generally, one notices progress in ideas and their practical application when the questions are rephrased. With persistence in posing the 'wrong' question one cannot arrive at a suitable answer which is practically applicable. In the philosophy of education, the question which is always discussed is the following: "What is the aim of education?" as "what should students known in the future?" as defined in terms of their need to apply what they learn to an understanding of themselves and their world. he question itself involves speculation and so does not lead to practical solutions to the problem of setting rational goals. The speculative nature of the educational aims debate accounts for the confusion about the priorities of education. To avoid confusion and meaningless discussion, any question about education has to be raised in a specific context. For example, what is the aim of education in terms of political ideology and specifically 'what is the aim of education for citizens of a democracy?' or 'what education is best for democracy?' or 'what is best for society?' In this sense 'the society' is perceived as an entity separate from the individuals who make it up. A dichotomy is perceived between individual and society when in fact no dichotomy actually exists. In dealing with problems of society and education, the tendency is to deal with outer structures and forms. But the sructures and forms are created by individuals and depend on their levels of consciousness. The formulation of 'aims of education' within the context of what is 'good for the society'... what 'society' needs most... is bound to be misleading when the level of perception gives rise to the so-called dichotomy society/individual. Any attempts to formulate educational aims for 'the society' without consideration of the needs of those who make up the society, will ultimately fail. Education for the 'needs' of the society or 'task-oriented education' inhibits intellectual and emotional growth and results in lack of creative intelligence, lack of of vision and lack of wisdom.
"Critical to educational policy is the following question: 'which worldview is shaping the goals of education?' Educational goals are set within the framework of a prevailing worldview or paradigm. Information is presented and reflected upon within the context of the accepted worldview. In the past, the worldview of empirical science has been shaping the goals of education. This worldview is now being challenged by the worldview of holistic science. The goals of education are being shaped by the new wholistic science." ( Willis Harman, The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science," Holistic Education Review. September 1992: 15-25)
"The objective of education is not the production of self-confident fools." (Bruner, Jerome. Process of Education. , Mass: Press, 1966. 65)
"The school should always have as its aim that the young man leave it as a harmonious personality, not as a specialist. The development of general ability for independent thinking and judgment should always be placed foremost."(Albert Einstein. Out of my Later Years: Philosophical Library, l960)
Dilemma in Education: Schools are faced with the apparent dilemma of how to motivate students to work within the framework of adult controlled instruction. How can we teach so that children are motivated to learn within the framework of a required curriculum while respecting their natural motivation for learning? The problem is this: requirements are established for children's education and yet there has been a general decline in educational standards. If learning is a natural basic function of the healthy mind, then how can children be motivated to learn, to study and to work?. How do we teach to the needs of the 'society' while respecting and maintaining children's natural function of learning? If learning and thinking are necessary skills for citizens of a free and democratic society then what kind of instruction will meet the society's established requirements? Insights from transpersonal psychology should be considered. Education for the needs of each individual fosters growth and results in vision and wisdom. It is important to avoid policies and programs which counteract children's motivation for learning behaviour which is an inherent characteristic defining the human personality or 'human nature'.What kind of education is needed for mature professionalism? Professionalizing of immature minds creates professions 'in grooves'. Each 'profession' makes progress but it is progress in its own groove if it results from cultivating technique without cultivating complete psychological development for maturity or 'humanisation'.
Education with emphasis on the cultivation of technique without provision of conditions for psychological growth results in the illusory sense of psychological security and makes for superficial experiencing. So-called 'professionals' whose psychological development is unbalanced and incomplete have immature minds which lack the awareness of the human values and consequently lack the vision and wisdom of the human value-life. As insecure individuals their desire for security becomes the driving force behind irresponsible decision-making which can have far-reaching and devastating effects. Consequently the aim of education for mature professionalism would be to encourage the learning of technical knowledge or 'technique' in conjunction with conditions of freedom to cultivate the knowledge of one's human nature or 'self-knowledge' which allows for a comprehensive understanding of thethe fullness or significance of life... the ability to experience an integrated life...to experience life anew every moment.Authentic experiencing creates its own technique or 'style' and provides the right perspective for the technique.Personality integration of maturity is the end result of balanced psychological development which is a function of intellectual, emotional and moral or 'spiritual' development. Maturity involves the wholistic perception of reality and the elimination of misconceived dichotomies which create unsolvable problems or 'pseudoproblems'. A mature personality is an integrated personality and the mature person is aware of their responsibilities to themselves and to the society in which they live. Education for maturity is education which allows for the person's complete psychological development. It is education for the person as a whole or 'holistic education'.
What is holistic education? Holistic education involves personalised learning in which the learner and the teacher are co-creators of the content of the learning process.Holistic education involves integration ofthe spiritual dimension of human nature. Holistic Education is Integral Education.Holistic education is education for optimal human developmentHolistic education is education for renewal of eroded human values which transcend economics and are necessary for responsible action. Holistic education faith in the child’s integrity and ability. Holistic education involves experiential learning based on natural brain functioning ...
... brain-based learning... biology of learning...
"One of the most important lessons to derive from brain research is that in a very important sense, all learning is experiential. What we learn depends on the global experience, not just on the manner of presentation. We do not automaticallylearn enough from our experience. What matters is how experience is used. ...in deliberately teaching for the expansion of natural knowledge, we need both to help students have appropriate experiences and to help them capitalize on the experiences." (Caine 104)
"The goal of education is the cultivation of the individual's human capacities for 'self-actualization', for love, justice community and joy." (David Purpel, 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: A Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. Masschusetts, Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc.)
In the paradigm of 'traditional education', the aims of education are defined in terms of content and the acquisition of information. Process as process of learning is interpreted in terms of methods etc...
The question "What is the aim of education?" is commonly interpreted in the narrow sense of "what content should students know in the future?" Content and process are considered separately for practical purposes. The content is considered in terms of expectations and 'learning outcomes'. The process of education has been defined in terms of teaching methods and learning strategies so that while content is determined by the philosophy of 'politics'and becomes the overt curriculum or 'outcome' the process of learning the content is also determined by politics and becomes the 'hidden curriculum' which determines what is to be studied, by whom and to what extent ...one learns how to learn the content, who decides which aspects of the content are to be learned, whom one must obey and respect, how to addresss and react to different members of one's class, whose favor one must curry, whose opinions one must respect and so on. But in fact the knowledge that exists today is only static knowledge which becomes new knowledge successive to yesterday's existing knowledge. For social adaptation in the modern world the reliance on the process of acquiring new knowledge becomes more important than reliance on static knowledge and this changingess is the only thing that makes sense as a goal for education. It is not so important which facts are taught as they could become obsolete even before they have been learned. It is more important that students be helped to feel independent and empowered in their own world so that they can develop their own potentialities and so rely on their own ability to cope with the unexpected and to solve whatever new problems crop up in their lives. For this reason the period of 'schooling' should offer the conditions of freedom which will make it a period of natural learning or ‘optimalearning’as a process for preparation of life as a mature adult human being. The long term result of separating outcome from process is the person's sense of alienation from life experience and from their world. The resulting disempowerment results in their inability to adjust to the demands of a changing social
Traditional paradigm of education: 'What is the aim of education' in the sense 'what should students know in the future? The formulation of educational policy depends on consideration of the prevailing accepted worldview or paradigm. In the process of enculturation people subconsciously experience reality in the context of the prevailing cultural worldview or paradigm. The paradigm is a framework of perception which is based on a set of given assumptions which make up a system of cultural beliefs. It is defined by a given set of constructs, values and techniques. (See Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Unviversity of Chicago Press, 1970) Information is presented and received within the context of the framework of the paradigm and in this way the paradigm shapes the goals of education. The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm of empirical science ofreductionism produces the mechanistic worldview according to which the universe is a mechanical system composed of elementary building blocks and natural phenomena can be can be analysed studied by reducing them to the parts which make them up. So-called 'traditional education' is based on this paradigm. Ideals are imposed and this encourages conformity.The concern is with the idea of what the individual should be. There is little concern for what the individual could be... little concern for the awakening of their intelligence, little concern for their growth, their humanity, their potential. There is no love. Traditional education is for personal motive and gain, for conditioned learning or 'conditioning'. Traditional education aims to limit and control the imagination. (See Gintis in R.C. Edwards et al(eds) The Capitalist System. Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972, p.123 ) "The function of education in any society is the socialization of youth into the prevailing culture. On the one hand, schooling serves to integrate individuals into society by institutionalizing dominant values, norms and belief systems. On the other hand, schooling provides the individual competencies necessary for the adequate performance of social roles. These educational systems are fundamental to the stability and functioning of any society." The traditional paradigm is being challenged at the present time and there is a shift ... 'paradigm shift' ... towards the new paradigm of the science of connectedness or wholeness, systems science or 'holistic science' and its ecological worldview. With the paradigm shiftaway from the mechanistic worldview of reductionism, the ecological worldview of holistic science is shaping the goals of education. in terms of providing the conditions of freedom required for human growth and development through meaningful learning.
Ideals have no place in education. They are detrimentalbecause they prevent the understanding of present reality. Concern for the ideal fosterssluggishness of mind which wants to avoid the present. For this reason the aim of education must not be based on any ideology … must not a be the means of conditioning the individual in some special way. When the aim of education is to work for an ideal… for the future...Fear of the future ... fear of the unknown is the driving force and as a result we establish for ourselves psychological zones of safety… in the form of systems, techniques, beliefs and so on. The ‘should be’ becomes more important than seeing the individual in the context of the complexities of their own life - the ‘what is’. This brings about confusion …creates in the individual psychological barriers which separate them and hold them apart from others. This breeds fear and produces inner conflict between what they are and what they are made to think they should be. The inner conflicts are manifest outwardly as external conflicts with others. The whole process hinders the understanding of the child as well as the child’s understanding of themselves.Political aims and ideals of the adults in the society interfere with the basic aim of education which is to provide the individual with a foundation for successfully living in the world. There is a need for depth education - education of the 'whole' individual. Specialization of knowledge must be accompanied by full human developmentWhen one is pursuing an ideal pattern of action there can be no integration of personality. This is not understanding the full significance of life. The idealist , like the specialist, is only concerned with part of life and not the whole of life.
We should understand the individual directly rather than looking through the screen of what we think they should be. The concern is not that we want to transform the individual into something else but that we want to help the individual understand himself.
"Not in the service of any political or social creed should the teacher work, but in the service of the complete human being, able to exercise in freedom a self-disciplined will and judgement, unperverted by prejudice and undistorted by fear." Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential. Adyar, : Kalakshetra Publications, 1961.3)
"We never educate directly, but indirectly by means of the environment. Whether we permit chance environments to do the work or whether we design environmnets for the purpose makes a great deal of difference. And any environment is a chance environment so far as its educative influence is concerned unless it has been deliberately regulated with reference to its educative effect." (Dewey "Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education" New York : The Free Press 1966)
"The relationship between society and the individual is not to be understood simply in the sense that cultural patterns and social institutions 'influence' the individual. The interaction goes much deeper; the whole personality of the average individal is molded by the way people relate to each other, and it is determined by the socioecoomic and political structure of society to such an extent, that in principle, one can infer from the analysis of one individual the totality of the social structure in which he lives." (Fromm Man For Himself, 78)
Aims for education make sense if they are formulated in the context of a paradigm which is appropriate to the needs of the individuals within the society. One can arrive at a solution with contemplation and rethinking the question in a wider context such as in the context of the new cultural paradigm of holism. In this way one can change the direction of thought and then new possibilities are opened up With the holistic perception of reality... holistic view of educational aims ...the society is clearly perceived in terms of the individuals who make it up so that the so-called 'individual/society' dichotomy disappears because what is good for the individual is good for the society. It makes non-sense and it is un-sane to talk about what is good for 'society' without talking about what is good for the individual. The ultimate purpose of education is the happiness of the individual and the welfare of the society.
"The individual is the heart of society." (Plato) "Only by being true to the full growth of individuals who make it up, can by any chance society be true to itself." (John Dewey My Pedagogic Creed quoted in Wade Baskin, ed., Classics in Education, : Philosophical Library, l966 pp. l856- l859)
Since the individual is the heart of society a more intelligent approach to the question 'What is best for society?' is to ask "How to enable individuals to grow and develop... improve themselves through their own inner development... in order to create that which is best for society?". Education which offers the right conditions for the individual's psychological needs which include spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' automatically accomodates the needs of the society. It is important to analyse the basic assumption which underlies the question 'what is the aim of education'? Is it valid to ask the question from the adult's point of view? If the answer is 'yes' then it is equally valid to ask the question from the child's point of view.The real problem is the following: what is the aim of education - for the child?
So what is the aim of education for the child? Belgian medical doctor, psychologist and pedagogue Dr. Ovide Decroly (1871 -1932) asked this very question. His answer was based on scientific, biological principles of development of the child as a social being... a social organism which like any other biological organism is motivated by motives for learning and behaviour or needs involved in the instinctive drive for self-preservation, security and growth. During their natural growth and development the child learns from the adults of the society by way of the 'introjection instinct' those values, capacities and skills which will enable them to adapt to changes in their social environment and to have the creative powers ... creative intelligence ... which they need to improve the social conditions for a life of meaningful productivity. Consequently children must be offered an education which offers those conditions of personal freedom required for human development with the aim to satisfy the human motives for learning and behaviour or 'human needs'. Education based on needs of the individual... education of the individual child as a whole ... 'holistic education' fosters growth and results in creative intelligence, vision and wisdom the very characteristics which are 'best for society'!
Basic aim of education for the child is maturity and integration of personalityrequired for responsibility of personal freedom and adaptability. The purpose of education is to cultivate the mind so that the individual can accomplish all his/her aims in life. Education should enable the individual to use the full potential of the body, mind and spirit... should develop the ability to make the best use of his personality, surroundings and circumstances in order to accomplish the maximum in life for himself and for others. The purpose of education would be met if the schools provided educational methods of self-development by which the individual can gain complete possession of of all his powers. Broadly speakly, education has two goals which are mutually dependent: cultivation and development of the individual and the improvement of society... individuals make up the society... the society improves with the improvement of the individuals who make it up... the individual is the heart of society....only by being true to the full growth of individuals who make it up, can by any chance society be true to itself. The aims of education are to foster the individual's inner freedom and development towards the following: self-initiated action and acceptance of responsibility for one's own actions, self-direction and intelligent decision making, critical learning and evaluation of others, acquisition of knowledge for resolution of problems, intelligent and flexible adaptation to new situations, creative utilization of experiential learning in adaptation to new situations, effective cooperation with others, self-motivation and a desire to work for one's own purposes i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'.
"The educator has the great resoponsibility of leading students to use and develop their own minds to think critically. Children must be allowed to develop their individual personalities and potentialities, as well as their mental and intellectual capacities in an educational climate of freedom and respect. Such a climate is the requisite condition for effective learning because it fosters the unfolding of their natural potentialities and their inner development towards inner freedom and rational thought." (Ovide Decroly)
Aim of education can be formulated in terms of the acquisition of information or knowle as acquisition of information or objective CONTENT or 'outcome' and the overt curriculum... or in terms of knowledge as the subjective PROCESS of knowing... as subjective learning. Since content of knowledge is gained through the process of knowing any rational discussion of education must consider both content and process.
Ask the old question (what is the aim of education?) in the new paradigm of holism and holistic science. Within the framework of the new holistic paradigm, the formulation of educational aims does not necessitate the separate consideration of outcome and process because content and process are interrelated. They are considered simultaneously. As a result educational aims are formulated in terms of the interrelationship between content and process. Consequently the content of one area, domain or field is regarded in terms of its relationship to other fields... so in terms of its 'significance'. The process' of learning is considered in terms of making associations and extending relationships. Teaching and learning are concerned with the integration of 'outcome' and 'process'. The long term result of integrating outcome and process is the person's integration with life experience... their sense of connection with the world... their enhanced capacity for adjustment to changes in the social environment... their 'adaptability'. Of particular importance, the integration of outcome and process results in self-empowerment which allows for the ability to adapt to social change.
"The child is presented as a behaving organism, whose mind is given to aid him in adapting to this world's life. Hence the purpose of education is to organize his powers of conduct so as to fit him for his social and physical milieu. Interests must be awakened and broadened as the natural starting points of instruction. The will must be trained to sustain the proper attention for productive thought and ethical action. The right sorts of habits must be early inculcated to free the child for his role as an intelligent being, and his ideas must be put wherever possible to the practical test. In the end the job of the teacher is to turn the 'sensitive, impulsive, associative, and reactive organism' that is the child into a purposeful, thinking adult who will use his talents to the fullest in the struggle for a better life." (William James Talks to Teachers on Psychology: and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals) (Lawrence A. Cremin The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education l876-l957 Vintage Books, Random House l964 p.108)
"The purpose of education is to culture the mind of a man so that he can accomplish all his aims in life. Education, to justify itself, should enable a man to use the full potential of his body, mind and spirit. It should also develop in him the ability to make the best use of his personality, surroundings and circumstances so that he may accomplish the maximum in life for himself and for others." The purpose of education would be met if the schools provided educational methods of self-development by which the individual can "gain complete possession of of all his powers." Broadly speakly, education has two goals which are mutually dependent: cultivation and development of the individual and the improvement of society. But it is individuals who make up the society. Therefore the society improves with the improvement of the individuals who make it up.
Schools must design curricula for interdisciplinary studies The implications for education in schools... Schools must not isolate children from life experience. In designing a curriculum for transdisciplinary studies, look for relationships and patterns in different subjects and organize the subject matter according to unifying themes. Seeing relationships and patterns results in the meaningful integration of the different subject areas.
The teacher and the student are not separate. Art, science, literature and music are 'embedded' in history."What is needed is a framework for a more complex form of learning that makes it possible for us to organize and make sense of what we already know" about educational theory and methods. Such a framework has to have a 'bottom line' integrity ; for us that means it must integrate human behaviour and perception, emotions and physiology. To make our point, we borrow heavily from cognitive psychology, education, philosophy, sociology, science and technology, the new physics, and physiological responses to stress, as well as the neurosciences... New framework can be created in the link between education and the neurosciences. Teachers must become facilitators of learning. (Doll, W.E.J "Complexity in the Classroom." Educational Leadership 47, 1: 65-70)
"The highest function of education is to bring about an integrated individual who is capable of dealing with life as a whole." (Jiddu Krishnamurti)
(Carl Rogers 1969. Freedom To Learn. : Charles Merrill Publishing Co.)
The aim of education is to foster the development of complete inner freedom... cultivate completeness …wholeness of the mind which is totally FREE from fears and conflicts... total freedom ... freedom from fear... from sorrow... total freedom brings about a sense of love and compssion with its own intellligence... The aims of education are to foster the individual's inner freedom and development towards ...enabling the development toward the following: self-initiated action and acceptance of responsibility for one's own actions, self-direction and intelligent decision-making, critical learning and evaluation of others, acquisition of knowledge for resolution of problems, intelligent and flexible adaptation to new situations, creative utilization of experiential learning in adaptation to new situations, effective cooperation with others, self-motivation and a desire to work for one's own purposes. Necessary environmental conditions... 'learning environment'... must be provided for the students in a so-called 'progressive' educational setting. Self-initaited learning occurs when students have direct confrontation with meaningful and relevant problems. Self-direction in the learning process occurs with teachers who have a basic trust in the capacity of the student for developing his own potentiality; self-motivation and desire to work occurs with teachers who are sincere, sensitive, and sympathetic. The effective teacher is a mature person with integrity as well as knowledge. He concentrates on creating a climate which facilitates learning and fosters responsible freedom. Without imposing himself or his knowledge, he is a resource and a provider of resources. He values each individual student as a developing human being with many feelings and many potentialities, empathetically accepting feelings of fear for new problems and satisfaction with each new achievement. With the knowledge of these requisite conditions, and psychological climate, it would be possible to establish an educational establishment which fosters the individual's proper growth and inner freedom. (pp47-66
... originality of thought based on independence of mind required for search for knowledge or 'truth'... 'science' in the true sense
Cognition of the whole mind (INTUITION) can discover the truth which is needed to make proper evaluation of the environment to produce creative and adaptive behavior
"The goal of education is inward freedom. Some practical experience and empirical knowledge - children prefer responsible freedom and self-imposed limits to the licence of chaos and aggression.... (see the experiment of A.S. Neill in his school Summerhill).... "The success of the experiment was due to Neill's sincerity and genuineness, his faith in the potential of each individual, his firm respect for each child and for himself... He had the courage to trust the individual and his natural desire to learn. The experiment demonstrated that children can learn to be free, the core philosophy of the progressive education movement, frequently debased into turning education into a sugar-coated pill." (Carl Rogers. "Some Efforts to Permit Freedom in Education" in Person to Person, : Real People Press. page 57)
Education for freedom is education for peace Peace is possible only between individuals who are free of fear. Fear comes to an end with self-awareness or ‘self-knowledge’. Self-knowledge is knowledge…understanding of human nature…if we understand the living reality the ‘what is’ then we are free of it… free of conflict… free of fear. This is ‘freedom’. To be free we must be aware of who we are we must stop struggling to become something which we are not.
Complete human development leads to inner freedom and the accurate perception of reality which is free from distortion.
The aim of education is to produce integrated individuals… free of fear… able to solve life’s problems…is to cultivate integration of personality cultivate integration of the personality … to develop integrated human beings… creative human beings… human beings who are creatively intelligent… enabling the person to deal with life as a whole …Integration of personality leads to intelligent thinking ..being able to meet life as a whole… that is to solve life’s problems… so ADAPTABILITY
… integrated understanding of the significance of life which will enable the individual to cope with the ever increasing complexities of life… The aim of education is for the integration of the human mind which is intelligent and free. Education in the true sense is helping the individual to be mature and free… to flower, to bloom, to blossom… in love and goodness… to become fully ‘human’.
Only possible with LOVE. Only love can bring about understanding of the other. Where there is love there is instantaneous communication… communion with the other…. on the same level and at the same time This is peace...
TO CULTIVATE PERSONALITY INTEGRATION required for personal freedom as the foundation for adaptation to the environment i.e. ‘adaptability’.
Aim of education is to cultivate (awaken) creative intelligence required for adaptability... forcreative living. What is creative intelligence? Creative intelligence is creative understanding . Creative intelligence combines the understanding of reason with the wisdom of compassion.CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE involves 'critical consciousness... understanding of the significance of the environment – being aware of conditioning influences on one’s psychological functioning and thus being free of them. This is inner freedom. Freedom is aloneness of solitude which implies connectedness with nature and human nature (one’s own and that of others). Aloneness is distinct from ‘loneliness’ which implies isolation in the sense of disconnectedness with nature and human nature. Creative intelligence is required to solve life’s problems…to live adaptively i.e. ‘adaptability’. As the ability to adapt adaptability is only possible with an integrated understanding of life… understanding of the significance of the whole of life which can only be understood in terms of the interconnectedness between the parts and the whole i.e. ‘holistic perception’. Holistic perception of life results from integration of knowledge. Aim of education is to foster the understanding of the ‘what is’ of the true reality… of the living reality or ‘truth’.It is consideration for the truth of ‘what is’ that awakens intelligence. Intelligence is the capacity to perceive the essential – the ‘what is’ the ‘truth’. To awaken this capacity in oneself and in others is the function of education. Cultivation of creative intelligence leads to fullness of integrated life and action and so the integration of thought and action
Implications for teachingIt is the intelligence of the educator which is even more important than their knowledge of methods and techniques. Education for personality integration depends on intelligence and affection on the part of the educator. The intelligent educator gives thought, care and affection to the creation of right environment and the development of understanding so that with maturity the individual will be able to deal intelligently with the human problems confronting him/her. In order to do this educators must understand themselves instead of relying on systems of ideologies and beliefs. Educators must be concerned with things as they are. The right way to educate is based on understanding the child as he is… without imposing an ideal of what the educator thinks he should be teacher 'attributes’.
"The secret of good teaching is to regard the child's intelligence as a fertile field in which seeds may be grown, to grow under the heat of flaming imagination. Our aim is not to make the child understand, and still less to force him to memorise, but so to touch his imagination as to enthuse him to his inmost core....we seek to help the child in his growth, mental and emotional as well as physical." (Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential.Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961. p. 15)
Sources: Jiddu Krishnamurti. Education and the Significance of Life
Wisdom is kindness. “What wisdom can you find that is greater than kindness?” Jean Jacques Rousseau
“My religion is kindness Dalai Lama”
Transformative Learninginvolves a structural shift in the basic premises of thought, feeling and behaviour... a shift in consciousness which permanently alters the person’s point of view or ‘worldview’.
Contemplaton is a creative power .... freedom implies responsibility and so is not synonymous with license.
Self-knowledge: At the heart of the urge to develop full human potential is a deeply spiritual yearning for self-knowledge… knowledge how to live in harmony with oneself with others and with the environment… knowledge for connectedness with oneself, with others and with the environment… feeling connected with human core values… essential values.Importance of self-knowledge ... Consciousness of the inner self...‘self-knowledge’ is the vital foundation for enlightened human living... The right kind of education… Education should cultivate the capacity for self-awareness… or ‘self-knowledge’. Ignorance is lack of understanding of oneself… so lack of self-knowledge. The ignorant person is not necessarily the unlearned… The supposedly learned person can be ignorant … Education as the cultivation of techniques should not separate from education as cultivation of the intelligence of self-knowledge.
Soul nourishing education is a fundamental human right
ESSENCEOF UNDERSTNDING…appreciate the dynamic interconnectivity which is fundamental to the nature of whatever system is being investigated – human nature included.
Love is compassion combined with intelligence…
‘Theosophy’ is spiritual wisdom
SELF-ACTUALISATIONis personal integration
"The aim of education is to encourage natural learning which is a feature of human development. The need for learning cannot be met without education" (Montessori)
'attributes' freedom as 'inner freedom' ...the 'what is' of reality or 'truthThe word 'society' is only a word. The word is not the thing (see Korzybski). There is no 'thing' which can be identified as the society. There would be no society without the individuals who make it up. "The individuals of the society "share a given set of constructs, values and techniques which together are referred to as a 'paradigm'." (Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. : Press. 1970) PEDAGOGY the art, practice or profession of; esp. systematized learning or instruction concerning principles and methods of teaching.
education in schools: Ask the question "how can schools become more integrated and cohesive?" Schools must not isolate children from life experience. In designing a curriculum for transdisciplinary studies, look for relationships and patterns in different subjects and organize the subject matter according to unifying themes. Seeing relationships and patterns results in the meaningful integration of the different subject areas. Useful metaphors: 1. 'Embeddedness' Teaching is 'embedded' in learning. The tw We should understand the individual directly rather than looking through the screen of what we think they should be. The concern is not that we want to transform the individual into something else but that we want to help the individual understand himself.