Harvard Referencing Websites In Bibliography Do Numbers

Information resources are used in the scientific writing style (theses, essays, research reports etc.) to support presented claims, or alternatively to provide challenging views that you wish to criticise. In both cases it is important that the citation expresses something relevant about the topic at hand.

A text must include references to the resources that are used. The accuracy and correctness of referencing are part of a well-written publication and add credibility and reliability to your work. When a work has been referenced correctly, readers can retrieve the cited information easily. Being punctual with your referencing is important when citing printed as well as electronic materials.

Information resources are mainly used in two ways in research: to summarise and to quote. The reader of the work must always be able to tell whether the information they are reading is the creator's own thought, a summary of, or direct quotation from another work.

To cite a news article from an electronic database

In text

If the article has a named author:

(Pianin 2001)

List of references

Pianin, E 2001, 'As coal's fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va; energy policy is transforming lives', The Washington Post,  25 February, p. A03, accessed March 2001 from Electric Library Australasia.

Include the following information:

  • author (if available)
  • year of publication
  • article title (between single quotation marks)
  • newspaper title (in italics)
  • date of article (day, month, page number—if given—and any additional information available)
  • accessed day month year (the date you accessed the items)
  • from name of database
  • item number (if given)


To cite a news article without a named author

In text

No named author:

(New York Daily Times1830) 

The article can also be discussed in the body of the paragraph:

An account of the popularity of the baby tapir in The Independent (2013) stated that ...

List of references

If there is no named author, list the article title first.

‘Amending the Constitution’, New York Daily Times, 16 October 1851, p. 2, accessed 15 July 2007 from ProQuest Historical Newspapers database.

'Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo', The Independent, 9 August 2013, Accessed 25 January 2014, .

Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo

Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo


To cite an online news article

In text

Cite the author name and year:

(Coorey 2007)

List of references

Coorey, P 2007, ‘Costello hints at green safety net’, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 May, accessed 14 May 2012, . 

While a URL for the article should be included, if it is very long (more than two lines) or unfixed (from a search engine), only include the publication URL:

Holmes, L 2017, 'The woman making a living out of pretending to be Kylie Minogue', The Daily Telegraph, 23 April, accessed 22 May 2017, .

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