# Achemso Bibliography Titles Of Movies

By:
12many
Generalising mathematical index sets.
a0poster
Support for designing posters on large paper
a2ping
a4wide
"Wide" a4 layout.
a5comb
Support for a5 paper sizes.
aastex
Macros for Manuscript Preparation for AAS Journals
abc
Support ABC music notation in LaTeX
abnt
Typesetting academic works according to ABNT rules
abntex2
Typeset technical and scientific Brazilian documents based on ABNT rules
abraces
Asymmetric over-/underbraces in maths.
abstract
Control the typesetting of the abstract environment.
abstyles
Font containing high quality icons of online academic profiles
accanthis
Accanthis fonts, with LaTeX support.
accfonts
Utilities to derive new fonts from existing ones.
achemso
Support for American Chemical Society journal submissions
acmart
Class for typesetting publications of ACM
acmconf
Class for ACM conference proceedings
acro
Typeset acronyms
acroflex
Create a graphing widget in a PDF file
acromemory
Memory games in LaTeX
acronym
Expand acronyms at least once.
acrosort
Sort sliced image into order.
acroterm
Manage and index acronyms and terms.
acrotex
The AcroTeX education bundle
active-conf
Class for typesetting ACTIVE conference papers.
actuarialangle
Angle symbol denoting a duration in actuarial and financial notation
actuarialsymbol
Actuarial symbols of life contingencies and financial mathematics
easier use of fonts without LaTeX support
A user-friendly wrapper around \enlargethispage.
Australian Defence Force Academy thesis format.
Augmenting directed graphs
Adjusting margins for multicolumn and single column output.
Graphics package-alike macros for “general” boxes.
BibTeX styles to implement an address database
Print a date relative to "today".
ae
Virtual fonts for PDF-files with T1 encoded CMR-fonts.
aebenvelope
The AeB Pro eEnvelope System.
aeb-mobile
Format PDF files for use on a smartphone.
aeb-pro
Items from the AeB Pro Family of Software
aebslicing
An image slicer.
aeb-tilebg
AeB Tiling Backgrounds
aebxmp
aecc
Almost European Concrete Roman virtual fonts.
aeguill
Add several kinds of guillemets to the ae fonts.
afparticle
Typesetting articles for Archives of Forensic Psychology
afthesis
Air Force Institute of Technology thesis class.
aguplus
Styles for American Geophysical Union.
aiaa
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
akktex
A collection of packages and classes.
akletter
Comprehensive letter support
alegreya
Alegreya fonts with LaTeX support
alg
LaTeX environments for typesetting algorithms.
algobox
Typeset Algobox programs
algolrevived
A revival of Frutiger's Algol alphabet
algorithm2e
Floating algorithm environment with algorithmic keywords
algorithmicx
The algorithmic style you always wanted!
algorithms
A suite of tools for typesetting algorithms in pseudo-code.
aligned-overset
Fix alignment at \overset or \underset
alkalami
A font for Arabic-based writing systems in Nigeria and Niger
allrunes
Fonts and LaTeX package for almost all runes
almfixed
Arabic-Latin Modern Fixed extends TeX-Gyre Latin Modern Mono 10 Regular to full Arabic Unicode support
alnumsec
Alphanumeric section numbering.
alphabib
alterqcm
Multiple choice questionnaires in two column tables.
altfont
Alternative font handling in LaTeX
ametsoc
Official American Meteorological Society Latex Template.
amiri
A classical Arabic typeface, Naskh style
Alter the position of affiliations in amsart.
amscls
AMS document classes for LaTeX
amscls-doc
User documentation for AMS document classes
amsfonts
TeX fonts from the American Mathematical Society.
amslatex-primer
Getting up and running with AMS-LaTeX.
amsmath
AMS mathematical facilities for LaTeX
amsrefs
A LaTeX-based replacement for BibTeX.
amstex
American Mathematical Society plain TeX macros.
analogclock
An analog ticking clock package for PDF output.
animate
Create PDF animations from graphics files and inline graphics
annot-pro
Create text, stamp and file attachment annotations
anonchap
Make chapters be typeset like sections.
anonymouspro
Use AnonymousPro fonts with LaTeX.
Setting questions (or exercises) and answers.
antiqua
antyktor
Antykwa Toru\'nska: a Type 1 family of a Polish traditional type.
anufinalexam
LaTeX document shell for ANU final exam
anyfontsize
Select any font size in LaTeX.
anysize
A simple package to set up document margins
aobs-tikz
TikZ styles for creating overlaid pictures in beamer
aomart
Typeset articles for the Annals of Mathematics
apa
American Psychological Association format.
apa6
Format documents in APA style (6th edition)
apa6e
Format manuscripts to APA 6th edition guidelines.
apacite
Citation style following the rules of the APA.
apalike2
Bibliography style that approaches APA requirements
apalike-german
A copy of apalike.bst with German localization
apl
Fonts for typesetting APL programs
apnum
Arbitrary precision numbers implemented by TeX macros
appendix
Extra control of appendices.
appendixnumberbeamer
Manage frame numbering in appendixes in beamer
apptools
Tools for customising appendices.
apxproof
Proofs in appendix
arabi
(La)TeX support for Arabic and Farsi, compliant with Babel.
Using hyperref and bookmark packages with arabic and farsi languages.
arabluatex
An ArabTeX-like interface for LuaLaTeX
arabtex
Macros and fonts for typesetting Arabic.
arabxetex
An ArabTeX-like interface for XeLaTeX
arara
Automation of LaTeX compilation
archaeologie
A citation-style which covers rules of the German Archaeological Institute
archaic
A collection of archaic fonts.
arcs
arev
Fonts and LaTeX support files for Arev Sans.
arial
URW Arial A030 Postscript Type 1 fonts.
arimo
Arimo sans serif fonts with LaTeX support
armtex
A sytem for writing Armenian with TeX and LaTeX.
arphic
Arphic (Chinese) font packages.
arphic-ttf
TrueType version of Chinese Arphic fonts
arrayjob
Array data structures for (La)TeX.
arraysort
Sort arrays (or portions of them).
arsclassica
A different view of the ClassicThesis package
articleingud
LaTeX class for articles published in INGENIERIA review
arydshln
Draw dash-lines in array/tabular
asaetr
Transactions of the ASAE
asana-math
A font to typeset maths in Xe(La)TeX and Lua(La)TeX.
asapsym
Using the free ASAP Symbol font with LaTeX and Plain TeX
ascelike
Bibliography style for the ASCE.
ascii-chart
An ASCII wall chart.
ascii-font
Use the ASCII “font” in LaTeX
asciilist
Environments AsciiList and AsciiDocList for prototyping nested lists in LaTeX.
Typeset American style Karnaugh maps.
aspectratio
Capital A and capital R ligature for Aspect Ratio.
assignment
A class file for typesetting homework and lab assignments
assoccnt
Associate counters, making them step when a master steps
astro
Astronomical (planetary) symbols.
asyfig
Commands for using asymptote figures.
asymptote
2D and 3D TeX-Aware Vector Graphics Language
asypictureb
User-friendly integration of Asymptote into LaTeX
attachfile
Attach arbitrary files to a PDF document
aucklandthesis
Memoir-based class for formatting University of Auckland masters' and doctors' theses.
augie
Calligraphic font for typesetting handwriting
auncial
Artificial Uncial manuscript book-hand font
auncial-new
Artificial Uncial font and LaTeX support macros.
aurical
Calligraphic font (AuriocusKalligraphicus) for LaTeX in T1-encoding.
authoraftertitle
Make author, etc., available after \maketitle.
authorarchive
Adds self-archiving information to scientific papers
authordate
Author/date style citation styles.
authorindex
autoaligne
Align terms and members in math expressions
autobreak
Simple line breaking of long formulae
automata
package for metapost to draw finite state machines, graphs, trees, etc.
autonum
Automatic equation references.
autopdf
Conversion of graphics to pdfLaTeX-compatible formats.
auto-pst-pdf
Wrapper for pst-pdf (with some psfrag features).
autosp
A Preprocessor that generates note-spacing commands for MusiXTeX scores
avantgar
avremu
An 8-Bit Microcontroller Simulator written in LaTeX.
awesomebox
axodraw2
Feynman diagrams in a LaTeX document
b1encoding
LaTeX encoding tools for Bookhands fonts.
babel
Multilingual support for Plain TeX or LaTeX
babel-albanian
Support for Albanian within babel
babel-azerbaijani
Support for Azerbaijani within babel
babel-basque
Babel contributed support for Basque.
babel-belarusian
Babel support for Belarusian
babelbib
Multilingual bibliographies.
babel-bosnian
Babel contrib support for Bosnian
babel-breton
Babel contributed support for Breton.
babel-bulgarian
Babel contributed support for Bulgarian.
babel-catalan
Babel contributed support for Catalan.
babel-croatian
Babel contributed support for Croatian.
babel-czech
Babel support for Czech.
babel-danish
Babel contributed support for Danish.
babel-dutch
Babel contributed support for Dutch.
babel-english
Babel support for English
babel-esperanto
Babel support for Esperanto.
babel-estonian
Babel support for Estonian
babel-finnish
babel-french
Babel contributed support for French
babel-friulan
Babel/Polyglossia support for Friulan(Furlan)
babel-galician
babel-georgian
Babel support for Georgian
babel-german
Babel support for documents written in German
babel-greek
Babel support for documents written in Greek
babel-hebrew
Babel support for Hebrew.
babel-hungarian
Babel support for Hungarian (Magyar)
babel-icelandic
Babel support for Icelandic
babel-indonesian
Support for Indonesian within babel
babel-interlingua
Babel support for Interlingua.
babel-irish
Babel support for Irish.
babel-italian
Babel support for Italian text.
babel-japanese
Babel support for Japanese
babel-kurmanji
Babel support for Kurmanji.
babel-latin
Babel support for Latin
babel-latvian
Babel support for Latvian
babel-macedonian
Babel module to support Macedonian Cyrillic
babel-malay
Support for Malay within babel
babel-norsk
Babel support for Norwegian.
babel-piedmontese
Babel support for Piedmontese.
babel-polish
Babel support for Polish.
babel-portuges
Babel support for Portuges.
babel-romanian
Babel support for Romanian.
babel-romansh
Babel/Polyglossia support for the Romansh language.
babel-russian
Russian language module for Babel
babel-samin
Babel support for Samin.
babel-scottish
Babel support for Scottish Gaelic.
babel-serbian
babel-serbianc
Babel module to support Serbian Cyrillic.
babel-slovak
Babel support for typesetting Slovak.
babel-slovenian
Babel support for typesetting Slovenian.
babel-sorbian
Babel support for Upper and Lower Sorbian.
babel-spanglish
Simplified Spanish support for Babel.
babel-spanish
Babel support for Spanish
babel-swedish
Babel support for typesetting Swedish.
babel-thai
Support for Thai within babel
babel-turkish
Babel support for Turkish documents.
babel-ukrainian
Babel support for Ukrainian
babel-vietnamese
Babel support for typesetting Vietnamese
babel-welsh
Babel support for Welsh
babyloniannum
Typeset Babylonian numerals with XeTeX.
background
Placement of background material on pages of a document.
backnaur
Typeset Backus Naur Form definitions.
baekmuk
Baekmuk Korean TrueType fonts
bagpipe
Support for typesetting bagpipe music.
bangorcsthesis
Typeset a thesis at Bangor University
bangorexam
Typeset an examination at Bangor University
bangtex
Class files for writing Bangla and Asamese with LaTeX.
bankstatement
A LaTeX class for bank statements based on csv data
barcodes
Fonts for making barcodes
bardiag
LateX package for drawing bar diagrams
bartel-chess-fonts
A set of fonts supporting chess diagrams.
bashful
Invoke bash commands from within LaTeX.
basicarith
Macros for typesetting basic arithmetic.
Fry’s Baskerville look-alike, with math support
basque-book
Class for book-type documents written in Basque.
basque-date
Print the date in Basque.
battleship
Typeset navy games.
bbding
A symbol (dingbat) font and LaTeX macros for its use
bbm
"Blackboard-style" cm fonts.
bbold
Sans serif blackboard bold.
bbold-type1
An Adobe Type 1 format version of the bbold font.
bchart
Draw simple bar charts in LaTeX
bclogo
Creating colourful boxes with logos.
bcr
beamer
A LaTeX class for producing presentations and slides
beamer2thesis
Thesis presentations using beamer.
beameraudience
Assembling beamer frames according to audience
beamercolorthemeowl
A flexible beamer color theme to maximize visibility
beamerdarkthemes
Dark color themes for beamer.
beamer-fuberlin
Beamer, using the style of FU Berlin
beamerposter
Extend beamer and a0poster for custom sized posters.
beamersubframe
Reorder frames in the PDF file.
beamerswitch
Convenient mode selection in Beamer documents
beamertheme-cuerna
A beamer theme with 4 colour palettes.
beamertheme-detlevcm
A beamer theme designed for use in the University of Leeds
beamertheme-epyt
A simple and clean theme for LaTeX beamer class
beamerthemejltree
Contributed beamer theme.
beamertheme-metropolis
A modern LaTeX beamer theme
beamerthemenirma
A Beamer theme for academic presentations.
beamertheme-phnompenh
A simple beamer theme.
beamertheme-saintpetersburg
A beamer theme that incorporates colours and fonts of Saint Petersburg State University
beamerthemetamu
A beamer theme for Texas A&M University
beamertheme-upenn-bc
Beamer themies for Boston College and the University of Pennsylvania.
beamer-verona
A theme for the beamer class
beebe
Nelson Beebe's BibTeX files
begriff
beilstein
Support for submissions to the “Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology”
belleek
Free replacement for basic MathTime fonts.
bera
Bera fonts.
Berenis ADF fonts and TeX/LaTeX support.
bestpapers
A BibTeX package to produce lists of authors’ best papers
betababel
Inserting ancient greek text coded in Beta Code.
beton
Use Concrete fonts
beuron
The script of the Beuronese art school
bewerbung
Typesetting job application
bez123
Support for Bezier curves.
bezos
Packages by Javier Bezos.
bgreek
Typeset classical Greek.
bgteubner
Class for producing books for the publisher "Teubner Verlag"
bguq
Improved quantifier stroke for Begriffsschrift packages.
bhcexam
An exam class designed for Mathematics Teachers in China
bib2gls
Command line application to convert .bib files to glossaries-extra.sty resource files
bib2xhtml
bibarts
"Arts"-style bibliographical information
bib-fr
French translation of classical BibTeX styles
bibhtml
BibTeX support for HTML files.
biblatex
Sophisticated Bibliographies in LaTeX
biblatex-abnt
BibLaTeX style for Brazil's ABNT rules
biblatex-anonymous
A tool to manage anonymous work with BibLaTeX
biblatex-apa
BibLaTeX citation and reference style for APA
biblatex-archaeology
A collection of BibLaTeX styles for German prehistory
biblatex-arthistory-bonn
BibLaTeX citation style covers the citation and bibliography guidelines for art historians
biblatex-authoryear-icomp-tt
Author-year style with compact multiple-reference-citations and ibidem mechanism for biblatex.
biblatex-bookinarticle
Manage book edited in article
biblatex-bookinother
Manage book edited in other entry type
biblatex-bwl
Biblatex citations for FU Berlin.
biblatex-caspervector
A simple citation style for Chinese users
biblatex-cheatsheet
BibLaTeX/Biber ‘cheat sheet’
biblatex-chem
A set of BibLaTeX implementations of chemistry-related bibliography styles
biblatex-chicago
Chicago style files for BibLaTeX
biblatex-claves
A tool to manage claves of old litterature with BibLaTeX
biblatex-dw
Humanities styles for BibLaTeX
biblatex-enc
BibLaTeX style for the École nationale des chartes (Paris)
biblatex-fiwi
BibLaTeX styles for use in German humanities
biblatex-gb7714-2015
A BibLaTeX implementation of the GBT7714-2015 bibliography style for Chinese users
biblatex-gost
BibLaTeX support for GOST standard bibliographies
biblatex-historian
A Biblatex style.
biblatex-ieee
IEEE style files for BibLaTeX
biblatex-ijsra
BibLaTeX style for the International Journal of Student Research in Archaeology
biblatex-iso690
BibLaTeX style for ISO 690 standard
biblatex-jura
Biblatex stylefiles for German legal literature.
Biblatex stylefiles for German law thesis.
biblatex-lni
LNI style for BibLaTeX
biblatex-luh-ipw
Biblatex styles for social sciences.
biblatex-manuscripts-philology
Manage classical manuscripts with BibLaTeX
biblatex-mla
MLA style files for BibLaTeX
biblatex-morenames
New names for standard BibLaTeX entry type
biblatex-multiple-dm
biblatex-musuos
biblatex-nature
BibLaTeX support for Nature
biblatex-nejm
Biblatex style for the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).
biblatex-nottsclassic
Citation style for the University of Nottingham
biblatex-opcit-booktitle
Use op. cit. for the booktitle of a subentry
biblatex-oxref
BibLaTeX styles inspired by the Oxford Guide to Style
biblatex-philosophy
Styles for using BibLaTeX for work in philosophy
biblatex-phys
A BibLaTeX implementation of the AIP and APS bibliography style
biblatex-publist
BibLaTeX bibliography support for publication lists
biblatex-realauthor
Indicate the real author of a work
biblatex-sbl
Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) style files for BibLaTeX
biblatex-science
BibLaTeX implementation of the Science bibliography style
biblatex-shortfields
Use short forms of fields with BibLaTeX
biblatex-source-division
References by “division” in classical sources
biblatex-subseries
Manages subseries with BibLaTeX
biblatex-swiss-legal
Bibliography and citation styles following Swiss legal practice.
biblatex-true-citepages-omit
Correction of some limitation of the citepages=omit option of BibLaTeX styles
bibleref
Format bible citations
bibleref-french
French translations for bibleref.
bibleref-german
bibleref-lds
Bible references, including those to the scriptures of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
bibleref-mouth
Consistent formatting of Bible references.
bibleref-parse
Specify Bible passages in human-readable format.
bibletext
Insert Bible passages by their reference
biblist
Print a BibTeX database
bibtex
Process bibliographies for LaTeX, etc
bibtex8bit
A fully 8-bit adaptation of BibTeX 0.99
bibtex8bit-polish
bibtopic
Include multiple by topic' bibliographies in a document.
bibtopicprefix
bibunits
Multiple bibliographies in one document.
bickham
Virtual fonts for Adobe Bickham Script Pro.
bidi
Bidirectional typesetting in plain TeX and LaTeX, using XeTeX
bidicontour
Bidi-aware coloured contour around text.
bidihl
Experimental bidi-aware text highlighting
bidipagegrid
Bidi-aware page grid in background.
bidipresentation
Experimental bidi presentation.
bigfoot
Footnotes for critical editions
bigints
Writing big integrals.
binarytree
Drawing binary trees using TikZ
binhex
Convert numbers into binary, octal and hexadecimal
binomexp
Calculate Pascal's triangle.
biochemistry-colors
Colors used to display amino acids, nucleotides, sugars or atoms in biochemistry
biocon
Typesetting biological species names
biolett-bst
A BibTeX style for the journal “Biology Letters”
bitelist
Split list, in TeX's mouth.
bitpattern
Typeset bit pattern diagrams
bizcard
blacklettert1
T1-encoded versions of Haralambous old German fonts
blindtext
Producing 'blind' text for testing.
blkarray
Extended array and tabular.
blochsphere
Draw pseudo-3D diagrams of Bloch spheres
blockdraw_mp
Block diagrams and bond graphs, with MetaPost.
bloques
Generate control diagrams.
blowup
Upscale or downscale all pages of a document
blox
Draw block diagrams, using TikZ.
bnumexpr
Extends eTeX’s \numexpr...\relax construct to big integers
bodegraph
Draw Bode, Nyquist and Black plots with gnuplot and TikZ
bohr
Simple atom representation according to the Bohr model.
boisik
A font inspired by Baskerville design.
boites
Boxes that may break across pages
bold-extra
Use bold small caps and typewriter fonts.
boldtensors
Bold latin and greek characters through simple prefix characters.
bondgraph
Create bond graph figures in LaTeX documents.
bondgraphs
Draws bond graphs in LaTeX, using pgf/TikZ.
bookcover
A class for book covers and dust jackets
bookest
Extended book class.
booklet
bookman
booktabs
Nicer layout of tables.
booktabs-de
German version of booktabs.
boolexpr
Evaluate boolean expressions.
boondox
Mathematical alphabets derived from the STIX fonts
bophook
Provides an At-Begin-Page hook
borceux
Diagram macros by François Borceux
bosisio
boxedminipage
A package for producing framed minipages.
boxedminipage2e
Framed minipages of a specified total width (text and frame combined)
boxhandler
Flexible Captioning and Deferred Box/List Printing.
bpchem
Typeset chemical names, formulae, etc
bpolynomial
Drawing polynomial functions of up to order 3.
bracketkey
Produce bracketed identification keys.
braids
Draw braid diagrams with PGF/TikZ.
braille
Support for braille.
braket
Dirac bra-ket and set notations.
brandeis-dissertation
Class for Brandeis University dissertations.
breakcites
Ensure that multiple citations may break at line end.
breakurl
Line-breakable \url-like links in hyperref when compiling via dvips/ps2pdf.
bredzenie
a Polish version of “lorem ipsum…” in the form of a LaTeX package
breqn
Automatic line breaking of displayed equations
br-lex
A Class for Typesetting Brazilian legal texts
bropd
Simplified brackets and differentials in LaTeX.
brushscr
Type-1 font named BrushScript-Italic.
bullcntr
Display list item counter as regular pattern of bullets.
bundledoc
Bundle together all the files needed to build a LaTeX document.
burmese
Basic Support for Writing Burmese.
Markup for the journal Business Research.
bussproofs
Proof trees in the style of the sequent calculus.
bxbase
BX bundle base components
bxcalc
Extend the functionality of the calc package
bxcjkjatype
Typeset Japanese with pdfLaTeX and CJK
bxdpx-beamer
Dvipdfmx extras for use with beamer
bxdvidriver
Enables specifying a driver option effective only in DVI output
bxeepic
Eepic facilities using pict2e.
bxenclose
Enclose the document body with some pieces of code
bxjalipsum
Dummy text in Japanese
bxjaprnind
bxjscls
Japanese document class collection for all major engines
bxnewfont
Enhanced \newfont command
bxpapersize
Synchronize output paper size with layout paper size
bxpdfver
Specify version and compression level of output PDF files
bxpict2e
BXpict2e
bytefield
Create illustrations for network protocol specifications
byzantinemusic
Facilitates writing byzantinemusic
cabin
A humanist Sans Serif font, with LaTeX support
Support for the Caladea family of fonts
calcage
Calculate the age of something, in years.
calctab
Language for numeric tables.
calculation
Typesetting reasoned calculations, also called calculational proofs.
calculator
Use LaTeX as a scientific calculator.
calligra
Calligraphic font.
calligra-type1
Type 1 version of Caliigra.
callouts
Put simple annotations and notes inside a picture
calrsfs
Nicer calligraphic letters.
cals
Multipage tables with wide range of features
calxxxx-yyyy
Print a calendar for a group of years
cancel
Place lines through maths formulae.
canoniclayout
Create canonical page layouts with memoir.
cantarell
LaTeX support for the Cantarell font family.
captcont
captdef
Declare free-standing \caption commands.
caption
Customising captions in floating environments
capt-of
Captions on more than floats.
carbohydrates
Carbohydrate molecules with chemfig
carlisle
Miscellaneous small packages by David Carlisle.
carlito
Support for Carlito sans-serif fonts
carolmin
Carolingan Miniscule manuscript book-hand font
carolmin-t1
Adobe Type 1 format of Carolingian Minuscule fonts.
Typeset papers conforming to the stylesheet of the Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
cases
Numbered cases environment
casyl
Typeset Cree/Inuktitut in Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics.
catalan
Catalan hyphenation patterns.
catchfilebetweentags
Catch text delimited by docstrip tags.
catcodes
Generic handling of TeX category codes
catechis
Macros for typesetting catechisms
catoptions
Preserving and recalling standard catcodes.
cbcoptic
Coptic fonts and LaTeX macros for general usage and for philology.
cbfonts-fd
LaTeX font description files for the CB Greek fonts
cbgreek
Complete set of Greek fonts.
ccaption
Continuation headings and legends for floats.
ccfonts
Support for Concrete text and math fonts in LaTeX
cchess
Chinese chess
ccicons
LaTeX support for Creative Commons icons
cclicences
cc-pl
Polish extension of Computer Concrete fonts.
cd
Typeset CD covers.
cdcover
Typeset CD covers
cdpbundl
Business letters in the Italian style
cell
Bibliography style for Cell.
cellspace
Ensure minimal spacing of table cells
cellular
Cellular table construction
cellwise
Building tables one cell at a time.
celtic
A TikZ library for drawing celtic knots
censor
Facilities for controlling restricted text in a document.
cesenaexam
A class file to typeset exams
cfr-initials
LaTeX packages for use of initials.
cfr-lm
Enhanced support for the Latin Modern fonts
changebar
Generate changebars in LaTeX documents
changelayout
Change the layout of individual pages and their text.
changepage
Margin adjustment and detection of odd/even pages.
changes
Manual change markup.
chappg
Package for page numbering by chapter.
chapterfolder
Package for working with complicated folder structures.
charter
Charter fonts.
chbibref
Change the Bibliography/References title.
cheatsheet
A simple cheatsheet class
checkcites
Check citation commands in a document
chemarrow
Arrows for use in chemistry
chembst
A collection of BibTeX files for chemistry journals.
chemcompounds
Simple consecutive numbering of chemical compounds.
chemcono
Support for compound numbers in chemistry documents
chemexec
Creating (chemical) exercise sheets.
chemfig
Draw molecules with easy syntax
chemformula
Command for typesetting chemical formulas and reactions
chemgreek
Upright Greek letters in chemistry
chem-journal
Various BibTeX formats for journals in Chemistry.
chemmacros
A collection of macros to support typesetting chemistry documents
chemnum
A method of numbering chemical compounds
chemschemex
Typeset and cross-reference chemical schemes based on TikZ code
chemsec
Automated creation of numeric entity labels
chemstyle
Writing chemistry with style.
chemsym
Macros for typing chemical symbols.
cherokee
A font for the Cherokee script
chess
Fonts for typesetting chess boards
chessboard
Print chess boards.
chessfss
A package to handle chess fonts.
chess-problem-diagrams
A package for typesetting chess problem diagrams
chet
LaTeX layout inspired by harvmac
chextras
A companion package for the Swiss typesetter.
chicago
A bibliography style.
chicago-annote
Chicago-based annotated BibTeX style.
chickenize
Use lua callbacks for “interesting” textual effects
childdoc
Directly compile \include'd child documents
chivo
Using the free Chivo fonts with LaTeX
chkfloat
Warn whenever a float is placed “to far away”.
chktex
Check for errors in LaTeX documents
chletter
Class for typesetting letters to Swiss rules.
chngcntr
Change the resetting of counters.
chroma
chronology
Provides a horizontal timeline.
chronosys
Drawing time-line diagrams.
chscite
Bibliography style for Chalmers University of Technology.
churchslavonic
Typeset documents in Church Slavonic language using Unicode
cinzel
LaTeX support for Cinzel and Cinzel Decorative fonts.
circ
Macros for typesetting circuit diagrams.
circle
Maths mode circles for temporal logic.
circuitikz
Draw electrical networks with TikZ
cirth
Fonts for Cirth.
cite
Improved citation handling in LaTeX.
citeall
Cite all entries of a bbl created with BibLaTeX
cje
LaTeX document class for CJE articles
cjhebrew
Typeset Hebrew with LaTeX
cjk
CJK language support.
cjk-fonts
Fonts for CJK typesetting.
cjk-gs-integrate
Tools to integrate CJK fonts into Ghostscript
cjk-ko
Extension of the CJK package for Korean typesetting
cjkpunct
Adjust locations and kerning of CJK punctuation marks
cjw
Fonts and macros for typesetting CJK
classics
Cite classic works.
classicthesis
A “classically styled” thesis package
classpack
XML mastering for LaTeX classes and packages.
cleanthesis
A clean LaTeX style for thesis documents
clearsans
Clear Sans fonts with LaTeX support.
clefval
cleveref
Intelligent cross-referencing
clipboard
Copy and paste into and across documents.
clock
Graphical and textual clocks for TeX and LaTeX
cloze
A LuaLaTeX package for creating cloze texts
clrscode
Typesets pseudocode as in Introduction to Algorithms.
clrscode3e
Typesets pseudocode as in Introduction to Algorithms.
cm
Computer Modern fonts.
cmap
Make PDF files searchable and copyable.
cmarrows
MetaPost arrows and braces in the Computer Modern style.
cmastro
cmbright
Support for CM Bright fonts in LaTeX.
cmcyr
Computer Modern fonts with cyrillic extensions
cmcyralt
LaTeX support for the cmcyralt fonts
cmdstring
Get command name reliably.
cmdtrack
Check used commands.
cmextra
cmfrak
Reencoded versions of Haralambous fraktur fonts
cmll
Symbols for linear logic.
cmpica
A Computer Modern Pica variant
cmpj
Style for the journal Condensed Matter Physics
cmsd
Interfaces to the CM Sans Serif Bold fonts
cmsrb
Computer Modern for Serbian and Macedonian
cm-super
CM-Super family of fonts
cmtiup
Upright punctuation with CM italic
cm-unicode
Computer Modern Unicode font family.
cnbwp
Typeset working papers of the Czech National Bank.
cnltx
LaTeX tools and documenting facilities
cntdwn
Support for countdowns, and for clocks in any timezone.
cntformats
A different way to read counters.
cntperchap
Store counter values per chapter.
cochineal
Cochineal fonts with LaTeX support
codedoc
LaTeX code and documentation in LaTeX-format file.
codepage
Support for variant code pages.
codesection
Provides an environment that may be conditionally included.
codicefiscaleitaliano
Test the consistency of the Italian personal Fiscal Code.
coelacanth
Coelacanth fonts with LaTeX support
collcell
Collect contents of a tabular cell as argument to a macro.
collectbox
Collect and process macro arguments as boxes.
collref
Collect blocks of references into a single reference
colordoc
Coloured syntax highlights in documentation.
coloring
Define missing colors by their names
colorsep
Color separation
colorspace
Provides PDF color spaces
colortab
Shade cells of tables and halign.
colortbl
colorwav
Colours by wavelength of visible light.
colorweb
Extend the color package colour space.
colourchange
colourchange
combelow
Typeset "comma-belo" letters, as in Romanian.
combine
Bundle individual documents into a single document.
combinedgraphics
Include graphic (EPS or PDF)/LaTeX combinations.
combofont
Add NFSS-declarations of combo fonts to LuaLaTeX documents
comfortaa
Sans serif font, with LaTeX support.
comicneue
Use Comic Neue with TeX(-alike) systems
comicsans
Use Microsoft Comic Sans font.
comma
Formats a number by inserting commas.
Expandable iteration on comma-separated and filename lists
commath
Mathematics support.
comment
Selectively include/exclude portions of text
committee-font
A font designed by a committee
compactbib
Multiple thebibliography environments
complexity
Computational complexity class names
comprehensive
Symbols accessible from LaTeX
computational-complexity
Class for the journal Computational Complexity
concepts
Keeping track of formal ‘concepts’ for a particular field.
concmath
Concrete Math fonts
concmath-fonts
Concrete mathematics fonts
concprog
Concert programmes
concrete
Concrete Roman fonts
confproc
A set of tools for generating conference proceedings.
constants
Automatic numbering of constants.
conteq
Typeset multiline continued equalities.
continue
Prints 'continuation' marks on verso pages of multipage documents
contour
Print a coloured contour around text.
contracard
Generate calling cards for dances.
conv-xkv
Create new key-value syntax
cooking
Typeset recipes
cookingsymbols
Symbols for recipes.
cooking-units
Typeset and convert units for cookery books and recipes
cookybooky
A LaTeX based package to easily typeset some professional looking cooking recipes.
cool
COntent-Oriented LaTeX.
coollist
Manipulate COntent Oriented LaTeX Lists.
coolstr
String manipulation in LaTeX.
coolthms
Reference items in a theorem environment.
cooltooltips
Associate a pop-up window and tooltip with PDF hyperlinks.
coordsys
copyedit
Copyediting support for LaTeX documents.
Provide copyright notices for images in a document.
cormorantgaramond
Cormorant Garamond family of fonts
correctmathalign
correct spacing of the alignment in expressions
corridx
Add index entries to LaTeX document.
coseoul
Context sensitive outline elements
countriesofeurope
A font with the images of the countries of Europe.
counttexruns
Count compilations of a document.
courier
Adobe Type 1 "free" copies of Courier.
courier-scaled
Provides a scaled Courier font.
courseoutline
coursepaper
coverpage
Automatic cover page creation for scientific papers (with BibTeX data and copyright notice).
covington
Linguistic support
c-pascal
Typeset C and Pascal programs.
cprotect
Allow verbatim, etc., in macro arguments.
cpssp
Draw protein secondary structures.
cquthesis
LaTeX Thesis Template for Chongqing University
crbox
Boxes with crossed corners.
crimson
Crimson fonts with LaTeX support
croatian
Fonts for Croatian Glagolitic and other Croatian scripts.
crop
Support for cropmarks
crossreference
Crossreferences within documents
crossreftools
Expandable extraction of cleveref data
crossrefware
Scripts for working with crossref.org
crossword
Typeset crossword puzzles.
crosswrd
cryptocode
Typesetting pseudocode, protocols, game-based proofs and black-box reductions in cryptography.
cryst
Font for graphical symbols used in crystallography.
csbulletin
LaTeX class for articles submitted to the CSTUG Bulletin (Zpravodaj)
csfonts
Czech/Slovak-tuned Computer Modern fonts
csfonts-t1
Czech/Slovak tuned CM fonts in Type 1 format
cslatex
LaTeX support for Czech/Slovak typesetting.
csplain
Plain TeX multilanguage support
cspsfonts
Czech/Slovakian PostScript font support.
csquotes
Context sensitive quotation facilities
css-colors
Named colors for web-safe design
cstypo
Czech typography rules enforced through LuaTeX hooks
csvsimple
Simple CSV file processing
csvtools
ctable
Flexible typesetting of table and figure floats using key/value directives
ctablestack
Catcode table stable support
ctanify
Prepare a package for upload to CTAN
ctan-o-mat
Upload or validate a package for CTAN
ctex
LaTeX classes and packages for Chinese typesetting
ctib
cuisine
Typeset recipes.
currency
Format currencies in a consistent way
currfile
Provide file name and path of input files
currvita
Typeset a curriculum vitae
cursor
Draw a cursor in an equation
curve
A LaTeX2e class for making curriculum vitae.
curve2e
Extensions for package pict2e.
curves
Curves for LaTeX picture environment
custom-bib
Customised BibTeX styles.
cutwin
Cut a window in a paragraph, typeset material in it.
cv
A package for creating a curriculum vitae
cv4tw
LaTeX CV class, with extended details.
cvsty
Yet another style for easy CV pagination.
cweb
A Web system in C
cyber
Annotate compliance with cybersecurity requirements
cybercic
“Controls in Contents” for the cyber package.
cyklop
The Cyclop typeface.
cyrillic
Support for Cyrillic fonts in LaTeX.
Simple typesetting system for mixed Arabic/Latin documents.
dancers
Font for Conan Doyle’s “The Dancing Men”
dantelogo
A font for DANTE's logo
dashbox
Draw dashed boxes.
dashrule
Draw dashed rules.
dashundergaps
Underline with dotted or dashed lines.
dataref
Manage references to experimental data
datatool
Tools to load and manipulate data
dateiliste
Extensions of the \listfiles concept.
datenumber
datetime
Change format of \today with commands for current time.
datetime2
Formats for dates, times and time zones
datetime2-bahasai
Bahasai language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-basque
Basque language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-breton
breton language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-bulgarian
Bulgarian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-catalan
catalan language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-croatian
croatian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-czech
czech language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-danish
danish language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-dutch
dutch language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-en-fulltext
English Full Text styles for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-english
English language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-esperanto
Esperanto language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-estonian
Estonian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-finnish
Finnish language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-french
French language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-galician
galician language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-german
German language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-greek
Greek language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-hebrew
Hebrew language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-icelandic
Icelandic language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-irish
Irish Gaelic Language Module for the datetime2 Package.
datetime2-italian
Italian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-it-fulltext
Italian full text styles for the datetime2 package
datetime2-latin
Latin language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-lsorbian
Lower Sorbian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-magyar
magyar language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-norsk
Norsk language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-polish
polish language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-portuges
Portuguese language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-romanian
Romanian language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-russian
russian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-samin
Northern Sami language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-scottish
Scottish Gaelic Language Module for the datetime2 Package.
datetime2-serbian
serbian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-slovak
slovak language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-slovene
slovene language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-spanish
Spanish language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-swedish
swedish language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-turkish
turkish language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-ukrainian
Ukrainian language module for the datetime2 package
datetime2-usorbian
Upper Sorbian language module for the datetime2 package.
datetime2-welsh
Welsh language module for the datetime2 package.
dblfloatfix
Fixes for twocolumn floats.
dccpaper
Typeset papers for the International Journal of Digital Curation
dcpic
Commutative diagrams in a LaTeX and TeX documents.
decimal
LaTeX package for the English raised decimal point.
decorule
Decorative swelled rule using font character.
dehyph
German hyphenation
dehyph-exptl
Experimental hyphenation patterns for the German language
dejavu
LaTeX support for the DejaVu fonts.
dejavu-math
OpenType maths fonts for DejaVu Serif.
dejavu-otf
Support for the ttf and otf DejaVu fonts.
delim
delimseasy
Delimiter commands that are easy to use and resize
delimset
Typeset and declare sets of delimiters with convenient size control
denisbdoc
A personal dirty package for documenting packages
designcon
Develop DesignCon papers.
devanagari
Typeset Devanagari
devanagari-omega
Typeset Devanagari with Omega.
dhua
German abbreviations using thin space.
Package to keep a diabetes diary.
diagbox
diagmac
A diagram drawing package.
diagmac2
diagnose
A diagnostic tool for a TeX installation
diagxy
Diagram macros by Michael Barr
dialogl
Macros for constructing interactive LaTeX scripts.
dice
A font for die faces
dichokey
Construct dichotomous identification keys.
dickimaw
Books and tutorials from the “Dickimaw LaTeX Series”.
dictsym
DictSym font and macro package
diffcoeff
Write differential coefficients easily
digiconfigs
Writing "configurations"
dijkstra
Dijkstra algorithm for LaTeX
din1505
Bibliography styles for German texts
dinat
Bibliography style for German texts
dinbrief
German letter DIN style
dingbat
Two dingbat symbol fonts
directory
dirtree
Display trees in the style of windows explorer.
disser
Class and templates for typesetting dissertations in Russian
dithesis
Thesis class for undergraduate theses at the University of Athens.
 This module may require a complete rewrite in order to suit its intended audience.You can help rewrite it. Please see the relevant discussion.

For any academic/research writing, incorporating references into a document is an important task. Fortunately, LaTeX has a variety of features that make dealing with references much simpler, including built-in support for citing references. However, a much more powerful and flexible solution is achieved thanks to an auxiliary tool called BibTeX (which comes bundled as standard with LaTeX). Recently, BibTeX has been succeeded by BibLaTeX, a tool configurable within LaTeX syntax.

BibTeX provides for the storage of all references in an external, flat-file database. (BibLaTeX uses this same syntax.) This database can be referenced in any LaTeX document, and citations made to any record that is contained within the file. This is often more convenient than embedding them at the end of every document written; a centralized bibliography source can be linked to as many documents as desired (write once, read many!). Of course, bibliographies can be split over as many files as one wishes, so there can be a file containing sources concerning topic A () and another concerning topic B (). When writing about topic AB, both of these files can be linked into the document (perhaps in addition to sources specific to topic AB).

## Embedded system

If you are writing only one or two documents and aren't planning on writing more on the same subject for a long time, you might not want to waste time creating a database of references you are never going to use. In this case you should consider using the basic and simple bibliography support that is embedded within LaTeX.

LaTeX provides an environment called that you have to use where you want the bibliography; that usually means at the very end of your document, just before the command. Here is a practical example:

\begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{lamport94} Leslie Lamport, \textit{\LaTeX: a document preparation system}, Addison Wesley, Massachusetts, 2nd edition, 1994. \end{thebibliography}

OK, so what is going on here? The first thing to notice is the establishment of the environment. is a keyword that tells LaTeX to recognize everything between the begin and end tags as data for the bibliography. The mandatory argument, which I supplied after the begin statement, is telling LaTeX how wide the item label will be when printed. Note however, that the number itself is not the parameter, but the number of digits is. Therefore, I am effectively telling LaTeX that I will only need reference labels of one character in length, which ultimately means no more than nine references in total. If you want more than nine, then input any two-digit number, such as '56' which allows up to 99 references.

Next is the actual reference entry itself. This is prefixed with the command. The cite_key should be a unique identifier for that particular reference, and is often some sort of mnemonic consisting of any sequence of letters, numbers and punctuation symbols (although not a comma). I often use the surname of the first author, followed by the last two digits of the year (hence lamport94). If that author has produced more than one reference for a given year, then I add letters after, 'a', 'b', etc. But, you should do whatever works for you. Everything after the key is the reference itself. You need to type it as you want it to be presented. I have put the different parts of the reference, such as author, title, etc., on different lines for readability. These linebreaks are ignored by LaTeX. The command formats the title properly in italics.

## Citations

To actually cite a given document is very easy. Go to the point where you want the citation to appear, and use the following: , where the cite_key is that of the bibitem you wish to cite. When LaTeX processes the document, the citation will be cross-referenced with the bibitems and replaced with the appropriate number citation. The advantage here, once again, is that LaTeX looks after the numbering for you. If it were totally manual, then adding or removing a reference would be a real chore, as you would have to re-number all the citations by hand.

Instead of WYSIWYG editors, typesetting systems like \TeX{} or \LaTeX{}\cite{lamport94} can be used.

### Referring more specifically

If you want to refer to a certain page, figure or theorem in a text book, you can use the arguments to the command:

\cite[chapter, p.~215]{citation01}

The argument, "p. 215", will show up inside the same brackets. Note the tilde in [p.~215], which replaces the end-of-sentence spacing with a non-breakable inter-word space. This non-breakable inter-word space is inserted because the end-of-sentence spacing would be too wide, and "p." should not be separated from the page number.

### Multiple citations

When a sequence of multiple citations is needed, you should use a single command. The citations are then separated by commas. Here's an example:

\cite{citation01,citation02,citation03}

The result will then be shown as citations inside the same brackets, depending on the citation style.

### Bibliography styles

There are several different ways to format lists of bibliographic references and the citations to them in the text. These are called citation styles, and consist of two parts: the format of the abbreviated citation (i.e. the marker that is inserted into the text to identify the entry in the list of references) and the format of the corresponding entry in the list of references, which includes full bibliographic details.

Abbreviated citations can be of two main types: numbered or textual. Numbered citations (also known as the Vancouver referencing system) are numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and consist in Arabic numerals in parentheses (1), square brackets [1], superscript1, or a combination thereof[1]. Textual citations (also known as the Harvard referencing system) use the author surname and (usually) the year as the abbreviated form of the citation, which is normally fully (Smith 2008) or partially enclosed in parenthesis, as in Smith (2008). The latter form allows the citation to be integrated in the sentence it supports.

Below you can see three of the styles available with LaTeX:

Here are some more often used styles:

Style NameAuthor Name FormatReference FormatSorting
plainHomer Jay Simpson#ID#by author
unsrtHomer Jay Simpson#ID#as referenced
abbrvH. J. Simpson#ID#by author
alphaHomer Jay SimpsonSim95by author
abstractHomer Jay SimpsonSimpson-1995a
acmSimpson, H. J.#ID#
authordate1Simpson, Homer JaySimpson, 1995
apaciteSimpson, H. J. (1995)Simpson1995
namedHomer Jay SimpsonSimpson 1995

However, keep in mind that you will need to use the natbib package to use most of these.

### No cite

If you only want a reference to appear in the bibliography, but not where it is referenced in the main text, then the command can be used, for example:

Lamport showed in 1995 something... \nocite{lamport95}.

A special version of the command, , includes all entries from the database, whether they are referenced in the document or not.

### Natbib

Citation commandOutput

Goossens et al. (1993)
(Goossens et al., 1993)

Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin (1993)
(Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin, 1993)

Goossens et al.
Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin

1993
(1993)

Goossens et al. 1993
Goossens et al., 1993
(priv. comm.)

Using the standard LaTeX bibliography support, you will see that each reference is numbered and each citation corresponds to the numbers. The numeric style of citation is quite common in scientific writing. In other disciplines, the author-year style, e.g., (Roberts, 2003), such as Harvard is preferred. A discussion about which is best will not occur here, but a possible way to get such an output is by the package. In fact, it can supersede LaTeX's own citation commands, as Natbib allows the user to easily switch between Harvard or numeric.

The first job is to add the following to your preamble in order to get LaTeX to use the Natbib package:

\usepackage[options]{natbib}

Also, you need to change the bibliography style file to be used, so edit the appropriate line at the bottom of the file so that it reads: . Once done, it is basically a matter of altering the existing commands to display the type of citation you want.

StyleSourceDescription
plainnatProvidednatbib-compatible version of plain
abbrvnatProvidednatbib-compatible version of abbrv
unsrtnatProvidednatbib-compatible version of unsrt
IEEEtranNTeX Catalogue entrynatbib-compatible style for IEEE publications
achemsoTeX Catalogue entrynatbib-compatible style for American Chemical Society journals
rscTeX Catalogue entrynatbib-compatible style for Royal Society of Chemistry journals

#### Customization

OptionMeaning
:  :  : Parentheses () (default), square brackets [], curly braces {} or angle brackets <>
: multiple citations are separated by semi-colons (default) or commas
:  : author year style citations (default), numeric citations or superscripted numeric citations
: multiple citations are sorted into the order in which they appear in the references section or also compressing multiple numeric citations where possible
the first citation of any reference will use the starred variant (full author list), subsequent citations will use the abbreviated et al. style
for use with the chapterbib package. redefines \thebibliography to issue \section* instead of \chapter*
keeps all the authors’ names in a citation on one line to fix some hyperref problems - causes overfull hboxes

The main commands simply add a t for 'textual' or p for 'parenthesized', to the basic command. You will also notice how Natbib by default will compress references with three or more authors to the more concise 1st surname et al version. By adding an asterisk (*), you can override this default and list all authors associated with that citation. There are some other specialized commands that Natbib supports, listed in the table here. Keep in mind that for instance does not support and will automatically choose between all authors and et al..

The final area that I wish to cover about Natbib is customizing its citation style. There is a command called that can be used to override the defaults and change certain settings. For example, I have put the following in the preamble:

\bibpunct{(}{)}{;}{a}{,}{,}

The command requires six mandatory parameters.

1. The symbol for the opening bracket.
2. The symbol for the closing bracket.
3. The symbol that appears between multiple citations.
4. This argument takes a letter:
• n - numerical style.
• s - numerical superscript style.
• any other letter - author-year style.
5. The punctuation to appear between the author and the year (in parenthetical case only).
6. The punctuation used between years, in multiple citations when there is a common author. e.g., (Chomsky 1956, 1957). If you want an extra space, then you need .

Some of the options controlled by are also accessible by passing options to the natbib package when it is loaded. These options also allow some other aspect of the bibliography to be controlled, and can be seen in the table (right).

So as you can see, this package is quite flexible, especially as you can easily switch between different citation styles by changing a single parameter. Do have a look at the Natbib manual, it's a short document and you can learn even more about how to use it.

## BibTeX

I have previously introduced the idea of embedding references at the end of the document, and then using the command to cite them within the text. In this tutorial, I want to do a little better than this method, as it's not as flexible as it could be. I will concentrate on using BibTeX.

A BibTeX database is stored as a .bib file. It is a plain text file, and so can be viewed and edited easily. The structure of the file is also quite simple. An example of a BibTeX entry:

Each entry begins with the declaration of the reference type, in the form of . BibTeX knows of practically all types you can think of, common ones are: book, article, and for papers presented at conferences, there is inproceedings. In this example, I have referred to an article within a journal.

After the type, you must have a left curly brace '' to signify the beginning of the reference attributes. The first one follows immediately after the brace, which is the citation key, or the BibTeX key. This key must be unique for all entries in your bibliography. It is this identifier that you will use within your document to cross-reference it to this entry. It is up to you as to how you wish to label each reference, but there is a loose standard in which you use the author's surname, followed by the year of publication. This is the scheme that I use in this tutorial.

Next, it should be clear that what follows are the relevant fields and data for that particular reference. The field names on the left are BibTeX keywords. They are followed by an equals sign (=) where the value for that field is then placed. BibTeX expects you to explicitly label the beginning and end of each value. I personally use quotation marks ("), however, you also have the option of using curly braces ('{', '}'). But as you will soon see, curly braces have other roles, within attributes, so I prefer not to use them for this job as they can get more confusing. A notable exception is when you want to use characters with umlauts (ü, ö, etc), since their notation is in the format , and the quotation mark will close the one opening the field, causing an error in the parsing of the reference. Using in the preamble to the source file can get round this, as the accented characters can just be stored in the file without any need for special markup. This allows a consistent format to be kept throughout the file, avoiding the need to use braces when there are umlauts to consider.

Remember that each attribute must be followed by a comma to delimit one from another. You do not need to add a comma to the last attribute, since the closing brace will tell BibTeX that there are no more attributes for this entry, although you won't get an error if you do.

It can take a while to learn what the reference types are, and what fields each type has available (and which ones are required or optional, etc). So, look at this entry type reference and also this field reference for descriptions of all the fields. It may be worth bookmarking or printing these pages so that they are easily at hand when you need them. Much of the information contained therein is repeated in the following table for your convenience.

articlebookbookletinbookincollectioninproceedings ≈ conferencemanualmastersthesis, phdthesismiscproceedingstech reportunpublished
annote
author+*o++o+o++
booktitle++
chaptero
crossref
editionoooo
editor*ooo
howpublishedoo
institution+
journal+
key
monthoooooooooooo
noteooooooooooo+
numberooooooo
organizationooo
pagesooo
publisher+++oo
school+
seriesooooo
title++++++++o+++
typeoooo
volumeoooooo
year++o+++o+o++o

### Authors

BibTeX can be quite clever with names of authors. It can accept names in forename surname or surname, forename. I personally use the former, but remember that the order you input them (or any data within an entry for that matter) is customizable and so you can get BibTeX to manipulate the input and then output it however you like. If you use the forename surname method, then you must be careful with a few special names, where there are compound surnames, for example "John von Neumann". In this form, BibTeX assumes that the last word is the surname, and everything before is the forename, plus any middle names. You must therefore manually tell BibTeX to keep the 'von' and 'Neumann' together. This is achieved easily using curly braces. So the final result would be "John {von Neumann}". This is easily avoided with the surname, forename, since you have a comma to separate the surname from the forename.

Secondly, there is the issue of how to tell BibTeX when a reference has more than one author. This is very simply done by putting the keyword and in between every author. As we can see from another example:

This book has three authors, and each is separated as described. Of course, when BibTeX processes and outputs this, there will only be an 'and' between the penultimate and last authors, but within the .bib file, it needs the ands so that it can keep track of the individual authors.

### Standard templates

Be careful if you copy the following templates, the % sign is not valid to comment out lines in bibtex files. If you want to comment out a line, you have to put it outside the entry.

@article
An article from a magazine or a journal.
• Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note.
@article{Xarticle,author="",title="",journal="",%volume="",%number="",%pages="",year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@book
A published book
• Optional fields: volume/number, series, address, edition, month, note.
@booklet
A bound work without a named publisher or sponsor.
• Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note.
@conference
Equal to inproceedings
• Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
@inbook
A section of a book without its own title.
• Optional fields: volume/number, series, type, address, edition, month, note.
@incollection
A section of a book having its own title.
• Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edition, month, note.
@inproceedings
An article in a conference proceedings.
• Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
@manual
Technical manual
• Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note.
@mastersthesis
Master's thesis
• Optional fields: type (eg. "diploma thesis"), address, month, note.
@misc
Template useful for other kinds of publication
• Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note.
@misc{Xmisc,%author="",%title="",%howpublished="",%year="XXXX",%month="",%note="",}
@phdthesis
Ph.D. thesis
• Optional fields: address, month, keywords, note.
@proceedings
The proceedings of a conference.
• Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
@techreport
Technical report from educational, commercial or standardization institution.
• Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note.
@unpublished
An unpublished article, book, thesis, etc.
• Optional fields: month, year.
@unpublished{Xunpublished,author="",title="",%year="",%month="",note="",}

### Non-standard templates

@patent
BibTeX entries can be exported from Google Patents.
(see Cite Patents with Bibtex for an alternative)
@collection
@electronic
@Unpublished
For citing arXiv.org papers in a REVTEX-style article
(see REVTEX Author's guide)

### Preserving case of letters

In the event that BibTeX has been set by the chosen style not to preserve all capitalization within titles, problems can occur, especially if you are referring to proper nouns, or acronyms. To tell BibTeX to keep them, use the good old curly braces around the letter in question, (or letters, if it's an acronym) and all will be well! It is even possible that lower-case letters may need to be preserved - for example if a chemical formula is used in a style that sets a title in all caps or small caps, or if "pH" is to be used in a style that capitalises all first letters.

However, avoid putting the whole title in curly braces, as it will look odd if a different capitalization format is used:

For convenience though, many people simply put double curly braces, which may help when writing scientific articles for different magazines, conferences with different BibTex styles that do sometimes keep and sometimes not keep the capital letters:

As an alternative, try other BibTex styles or modify the existing. The approach of putting only relevant text in curly brackets is the most feasible if using a template under the control of a publisher, such as for journal submissions. Using curly braces around single letters is also to be avoided if possible, as it may mess up the kerning, especially with biblatex,[1] so the first step should generally be to enclose single words in braces.

Below you will find a few additional examples of bibliography entries. The first one covers the case of multiple authors in the Surname, Firstname format, and the second one deals with the incollection case.

@article{AbedonHymanThomas2003,author="Abedon, S. T. and Hyman, P. and Thomas, C.",year="2003",title="Experimental examination of bacteriophage latent-period evolution as a response to bacterial availability",journal="Applied and Environmental Microbiology",volume="69",pages="7499--7506"}@incollection{Abedon1994,author="Abedon, S. T.",title="Lysis and the interaction between free phages and infected cells",pages="397--405",booktitle="Molecular biology of bacteriophage T4",editor="Karam, Jim D. Karam and Drake, John W. and Kreuzer, Kenneth N. and Mosig, Gisela and Hall, Dwight and Eiserling, Frederick A. and Black, Lindsay W. and Kutter, Elizabeth and Carlson, Karin and Miller, Eric S. and Spicer, Eleanor",publisher="ASM Press, Washington DC",year="1994"}

If you have to cite a website you can use @misc, for example:

@misc{website:fermentas-lambda,author="Fermentas Inc.",title="Phage Lambda: description \& restriction map",month="November",year="2008",url="http://www.fermentas.com/techinfo/nucleicacids/maplambda.htm"}

The note field comes in handy if you need to add unstructured information, for example that the corresponding issue of the journal has yet to appear:

@article{blackholes,author="Rabbert Klein",title="Black Holes and Their Relation to Hiding Eggs",journal="Theoretical Easter Physics",publisher="Eggs Ltd.",year="2010",note="(to appear)"}

### Getting current LaTeX document to use your .bib file

At the end of your LaTeX file (that is, after the content, but before ), you need to place the following commands:

\bibliographystyle{plain}\bibliography{sample1,sample2,...,samplen}% Note the lack of whitespace between the commas and the next bib file.

Bibliography styles are files recognized by BibTeX that tell it how to format the information stored in the file when processed for output. And so the first command listed above is declaring which style file to use. The style file in this instance is (which comes as standard with BibTeX). You do not need to add the .bst extension when using this command, as it is assumed. Despite its name, the plain style does a pretty good job (look at the output of this tutorial to see what I mean).

The second command is the one that actually specifies the file you wish to use. The ones I created for this tutorial were called , , . . ., , but once again, you don't include the file extension. At the moment, the file is in the same directory as the LaTeX document too. However, if your .bib file was elsewhere (which makes sense if you intend to maintain a centralized database of references for all your research), you need to specify the path as well, e.g or (if the file is in the parent directory of the document that calls it).

Now that LaTeX and BibTeX know where to look for the appropriate files, actually citing the references is fairly trivial. The is the command you need, making sure that the ref_key corresponds exactly to one of the entries in the .bib file. If you wish to cite more than one reference at the same time, do the following: .

### Why won't LaTeX generate any output?

The addition of BibTeX adds extra complexity for the processing of the source to the desired output. This is largely hidden from the user, but because of all the complexity of the referencing of citations from your source LaTeX file to the database entries in another file, you actually need multiple passes to accomplish the task. This means you have to run LaTeX a number of times. Each pass will perform a particular task until it has managed to resolve all the citation references. Here's what you need to type (into command line):

(Extensions are optional, if you put them note that the bibtex command takes the AUX file as input.)

After the first LaTeX run, you will see errors such as:

LaTeX Warning: Citation lamport94' on page 1 undefined on input line 21. ... LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.

The next step is to run bibtex on that same LaTeX source (or more precisely the corresponding AUX file, however not on the actual .bib file) to then define all the references within that document. You should see output like the following:

This is BibTeX, Version 0.99c (Web2C 7.3.1) The top-level auxiliary file: latex_source_code.aux The style file: plain.bst Database file #1: sample.bib

The third step, which is invoking LaTeX for the second time will see more errors like "". Don't be alarmed, it's almost complete. As you can guess, all you have to do is follow its instructions, and run LaTeX for the third time, and the document will be output as expected, without further problems.

If you want a pdf output instead of a dvi output you can use instead of as follows:

(Extensions are optional, if you put them note that the bibtex command takes the AUX file as input.)

Note that if you are editing your source in vim and attempt to use command mode and the current file shortcut (%) to process the document like this:

You will get an error similar to this:

It appears that the file extension is included by default when the current file command (%) is executed. To process your document from within vim, you must explicitly name the file without the file extension for bibtex to work, as is shown below:

1. (without file extension, it looks for the AUX file as mentioned above)

However, it is much easier to install the Vim-LaTeX plugin from here. This allows you to simply type \ll when not in insert mode, and all the appropriate commands are automatically executed to compile the document. Vim-LaTeX even detects how many times it has to run pdflatex, and whether or not it has to run bibtex. This is just one of the many nice features of Vim-LaTeX, you can read the excellent Beginner's Tutorial for more about the many clever shortcuts Vim-LaTeX provides.

Another option exists if you are running Unix/Linux or any other platform where you have make. Then you can simply create a Makefile and use vim's make command or use make in shell. The Makefile would then look like this:

latex_source_code.pdf: latex_source_code.tex latex_source_code.bib pdflatex latex_source_code.tex bibtex latex_source_code.aux pdflatex latex_source_code.tex pdflatex latex_source_code.tex

### Including URLs in bibliography

As you can see, there is no field for URLs. One possibility is to include Internet addresses in field of or field of , , :

Note the usage of command to ensure proper appearance of URLs.

Another way is to use special field and make bibliography style recognise it.

You need to use in the first case or in the second case.

Styles provided by Natbib (see below) handle this field, other styles can be modified using urlbst program. Modifications of three standard styles (plain, abbrv and alpha) are provided with urlbst.

If you need more help about URLs in bibliography, visit FAQ of UK List of TeX.

### Customizing bibliography appearance

One of the main advantages of BibTeX, especially for people who write many research papers, is the ability to customize your bibliography to suit the requirements of a given publication. You will notice how different publications tend to have their own style of formatting references, to which authors must adhere if they want their manuscripts published. In fact, established journals and conference organizers often will have created their own bibliography style (.bst file) for those users of BibTeX, to do all the hard work for you.

It can achieve this because of the nature of the .bib database, where all the information about your references is stored in a structured format, but nothing about style. This is a common theme in LaTeX in general, where it tries as much as possible to keep content and presentation separate.

A bibliography style file () will tell LaTeX how to format each attribute, what order to put them in, what punctuation to use in between particular attributes etc. Unfortunately, creating such a style by hand is not a trivial task. Which is why (also known as custom-bib) is the tool we need.

can be used to automatically generate a .bst file based on your needs. It is very simple, and actually asks you a series of questions about your preferences. Once complete, it will then output the appropriate style file for you to use.

It should be installed with the LaTeX distribution (otherwise, you can download it) and it's very simple to initiate. At the command line, type:

latex makebst

LaTeX will find the relevant file and the questioning process will begin. You will have to answer quite a few (although, note that the default answers are pretty sensible), which means it would be impractical to go through an example in this tutorial. However, it is fairly straight-forward. And if you require further guidance, then there is a comprehensive manual available. I'd recommend experimenting with it and seeing what the results are when applied to a LaTeX document.

If you are using a custom built .bst file, it is important that LaTeX can find it! So, make sure it's in the same directory as the LaTeX source file, unless you are using one of the standard style files (such as plain or plainnat, that come bundled with LaTeX - these will be automatically found in the directories that they are installed. Also, make sure the name of the file you want to use is reflected in the command (but don't include the extension!).

### Localizing bibliography appearance

When writing documents in languages other than English, you may find it desirable to adapt the appearance of your bibliography to the document language. This concerns words such as editors, and, or in as well as a proper typographic layout. The package can be used here. For example, to layout the bibliography in German, add the following to the header:

\usepackage[fixlanguage]{babelbib}\selectbiblanguage{german}

Alternatively, you can layout each bibliography entry according to the language of the cited document:

The language of an entry is specified as an additional field in the BibTeX entry:

@article{mueller08,%...language={german}}

For to take effect, a bibliography style supported by it - one of , , , , , and - must be used:

\bibliographystyle{babplain}\bibliography{sample}

### Showing unused items

Usually LaTeX only displays the entries which are referred to with . It's possible to make uncited entries visible:

\nocite{Name89}% Show Bibliography entry of Name89\nocite{*}% Show all Bib-entries

### Getting bibliographic data

Many online databases provide bibliographic data in BibTeX-Format, making it easy to build your own database. For example, Google Scholar offers the option to return properly formatted output, which can also be turned on in the settings page.

One should be alert to the fact that bibliographic databases are frequently the product of several generations of automatic processing, and so the resulting BibTex code is prone to a variety of minor errors, especially in older entries.