Paris Street Rainy Day Essay

This work is featured in the online catalogue Caillebotte Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago. This is the museum’s third volume in its scholarly digital series on the Impressionist circle. This catalogue offers in-depth curatorial and technical entries on the five works of art by Gustave Caillebotte in the museum’s collection. The entries feature interactive and layered high-resolution imaging, videos, and previously unpublished technical photographs in addition to archival materials and documentation relating to each artwork.

In his masterpiece, Paris Street; Rainy Day, Gustave Caillebotte brought an unusual monumentality and compositional control to a typical Impressionist subject, the new boulevards that were changing the Paris cityscape. The result is at once real and contrived, casual and choreographed. With its curiously detached figures, the canvas depicts the anonymity that the boulevards seemed to create. By the time it appeared in the third Impressionist exhibition, held in April 1877, the artist was 29 years old, a man of considerable wealth, and not only the youngest but also the most active member of the Impressionist group. He contributed six of his own canvases to the exhibition; played a leading part in its funding, organization, promotion, and installation; and lent a number of paintings by his colleagues that he owned.

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Paris, 6, rue le Peletier, 3e exposition de peinture[third Impressionist exhibition], Apr. 1877, cat. 1, as Rue de Paris; Temps de pluie.

Paris, Durand-Ruel, Exposition rétrospective d’oeuvres de G. Caillebotte, June 4–16, 1894, cat. 47.

Paris, Galerie Beaux-Arts, Rétrospective Gustave Caillebotte, May 25–July 25, 1951, cat. 13.

Portland (Ore.) Art Museum, Paintings from the Collection of Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., Mar. 2–Apr. 15, 1956, cat. 78 (ill.); Seattle Art Museum, Apr. 27–May 27, 1956; San Francisco, California Palace of the Legion of Honor, opened June 11, 1956; Los Angeles County Museum, July 27–Aug. 26, 1956; Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Sept. 7–Oct. 9, 1956; City Art Museum of Saint Louis, Oct. 20–Nov. 19, 1956; Kansas City, William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Dec. 2–30, 1956; Detroit Institute of Arts, Jan. 18–Feb. 17, 1957; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mar. 8–Apr. 7, 1957.

Dayton (Ohio) Art Institute, French Paintings, 1789–1929: From the Collection of Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., Mar. 25–May 22, 1960, cat. 56 (ill.).

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Past Rediscovered: French Painting, 1800–1900, July 3–Sept. 7, 1969, cat. 7 (ill.).

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, Oct. 22, 1976–Jan. 2, 1977, cat. 25 (ill.); Brooklyn Museum, Feb. 12–Apr. 24, 1977 (Houston only).

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, Jan. 17–Apr. 6, 1986, cat. 38 (ill.); Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, Apr. 19–July 6, 1986.

Art Institute of Chicago, The Art of the Edge: European Frames, 1300–1900, Oct. 17–Dec. 14, 1986, not in cat.

Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, Sept. 16, 1994–Jan. 9, 1995, cat. 35 (ill.); Art Institute of Chicago, as Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, Feb. 18–May 28, 1995; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, June 22–Sept. 10, 1995.

Fort Worth, Tex., Kimbell Museum of Art, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, June 29–Nov. 2, 2008, cat. 18 (ill.).

Essen, Germany, Museum Folkwang, Bilder einer Metropole: Die Impressionisten in Paris, Oct. 2, 2010–Jan. 30, 2011, cat. 11 (ill.).

Paris, Musée d’Orsay, L’impressionnisme et la mode, Sept. 25, 2012–Jan. 20, 2013, cat. 35 (ill.); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, asImpressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, Feb. 26–May 27, 2013, cat. 93 (ill.); Art Institute of Chicago, June 26–Sept. 29, 2013.

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, June 28–Oct. 4, 2015, cat. 4 (ill.); Fort Worth, Tex., Kimbell Art Museum, Nov. 8, 2015–Feb. 14, 2016.

Publication History

Catalogue de la 3e exposition de peinture, exh. cat. (E. Capiomont et V. Renault, 1877), p. 3, cat. 1.

Léon Mancino, “La descente de la courtille,” L’art 9 (Apr. 1877), p. 70.

Anonymous [possibly Gaston Vassy], “La journée à Paris: L’exposition des impressionnalistes,” L’événement, Apr. 6, 1877, p. 2.

L. G., “Le salon des ‘impressionnistes,’” La presse, Apr. 6, 1877, p. 2.

“Chronique,” Gazette de France, Apr. 7, 1877, p. 2.

Thomas Grimm [Pierre Véron], “Les impressionnistes,” Le petit journal, Apr. 7, 1877, p. 1.

Alexandre Pothey, “Beaux-arts,” Le petit parisien, Apr. 7, 1877, p. 2.

Paul Sébillot, “Exposition des impressionnistes,” Le bien public, Apr. 7, 1877, p. 2.

Anonymous [possibly George Lafenestre], “Le jour et la nuit,” Le moniteur universel, Apr. 8, 1877, p. 2.

C. D., “L’exposition des impressionnistes,” Le petit moniteur universel, Apr. 8, 1877, p. 2.

E. Lepelletier [Edmond-Adolphe de Bouhélier], “Les impressionnistes,” Le radical, Apr. 8, 1877, pp. 2–3.

Baron Schop [Théodore de Banville], “Choses et autres,” Le national, Apr. 8, 1877,pp. 2–3.

Anonymous [possibly Pierre Véron], “Les impressionnistes,” La petite presse, Apr. 9, 1877, p. 3.

Bertall [Charles-Albert d’Arnoux], “Exposition des impressionnistes,” Paris-Journal, Apr. 9, 1877, pp. 1–2.

“Exposition des impressionnistes: 6, rue le Peletier, 6,” La petite république française, Apr. 10, 1877, p. 2.

Léon de Lora [Louis de Fourcaud], “L’exposition des impressionnistes,” Le gaulois, Apr. 10, 1877, p. 2.

Jacques [Edmond Bazire], “Menus propos: Exposition impressionniste,” L’homme libre, Apr. 12, 1877, p. 1.

Roger Ballu, “L’exposition des peintres impressionnistes,” La chronique des arts et de la curiosité, Apr. 14, 1877, p. 147.

Georges Rivière, “L’exposition des impressionnistes,” L’impressionniste, Apr. 14, 1877, p. 4.

Anonymous [possibly Émile Zola], “Noted parisiennes: Une exposition; Les peintres impressionnistes,” Le sémaphore de Marseille, Apr. 19, 1877, p. 1.

A. Descubes [Amédée Descubes-Desgueraines], “L’exposition des impressionnistes,” Gazette des lettres, des sciences et des arts 1, 12 (Apr. 20, 1877), p. 187.

Ernest Fillonneau, “Les impressionnistes,” Moniteur des arts, Apr. 20, 1877, p. 1.

Paul Mantz, “L’exposition des peintres impressionnistes,” Le temps, Apr. 22, 1877, p. 3.

Roger Ballu, “L’exposition des peintres impressionnistes,” Les beaux-arts illustrés, Apr. 23, 1877, p. 392.

Philippe Burty, “Exposition des impressionnistes,” La république française, Apr. 25, 1877, p. 3.

Charles Bigot, “Causerie artistique: L’exposition des ‘impressionnistes,’” La revue politique et littéraire, Apr. 28, 1877, p. 1047.

Frédéric Chevalier, “Les impressionnistes,”L’artiste, May 1, 1877, p. 332.

Ph. M., “Arts: Les impressionnistes,” Revue des idées nouvelles 11 (May 1, 1877), p. 167.

Georges Rivière, “Les intransigeants et les impressionnistes: Souvenir du salon libre de 1877,” L’artiste, Nov. 1, 1877, p. 302.

Durand-Ruel, Paris, Exposition rétrospective d’oeuvres de G. Caillebotte, exh. cat. (E. Moreau, 1894), p. 5, cat. 47.

Jacques Crevelier, “À travers l’art: Caillebotte,” Le soir, June 8, 1894.

Lionello Venturi, Les archives de l’impressionnisme: Lettres de Renoir, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley et autres; Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel; Documents, vol. 2 (Durand-Ruel, 1939), p. 319.

Galerie Beaux-Arts, Rétrospective Gustave Caillebotte, au profit du Musée de Rennes, exh. cat. (Galerie Beaux-Arts, 1951), cat. 13.

Marie Berhaut, Caillebotte, with an introduction by Daniel Wildenstein (Wildenstein, 1951), front cover (detail), back cover (detail); cat. 28.

J. Bouret, “Un peintre de notre temps,” Art, beaux-arts, littérature, spectacles, May 25, 1951, p. 1 (ill.).

Raymond Cogniat et al., with the assistance of Robert Maillard, Dictionnaire de la peinture moderne (Hazan, 1954), p. 43.

Henri Perruchot, “Scandale au Luxembourg,” L’oeil 9 (Sept. 1955), pp. 16–17 (ill.).

Portland (Ore.) Art Museum, Paintings from the Collection of Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., exh. cat. (Portland Art Association, 1956), pp. 47, cat. 78; 122, cat. 78 (ill.).

Bob Sanford, “Art of World Importance to Be at Nelson Gallery,” Kansas City Star, Nov. 25, 1956, p. E1 (ill.).

Maurice Sérullaz, Les peintres impressionnistes (Pierre Tisné, 1959), p. 99.

Dayton (Ohio) Art Museum, French Paintings, 1789–1929: From the Collection of Walter P. Chrysler Jr., exh. cat. (Dayton Art Museum, 1960), pp. 64, cat. 56 (ill.); 131, cat. 56.

“Art: U.S. Exhibitions Elsewhere,” New York Times, Apr. 10, 1960, p. 12X (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago Annual Report, 1964–65 (Art Institute of Chicago, 1965), pp. 15, 29.

John Maxon, “Place de l’Europe on a Rainy Day,” Calendar of the Art Institute of Chicago 59, 3 (May 1965), pp. 8–9 (ill.).

Denys Sutton, “Gustave Caillebotte,” in Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894: A Loan Exhibition in Aid of the Hertford British Hospital in Paris, exh. cat. (Wildenstein, 1966), p. 9.

Max Wykes-Joyce, “Maecenas at Work: Gustave Caillebotte,” Art Review 18, 11 (June 11, 1966), p. 269.

John Maxon, “Some Recent Acquisitions,” Apollo 84, 55 (Sept. 1966), front cover (detail); pp. 171, 216.

Marie Berhaut, Caillebotte: The Impressionist, trans. Diana Imber (International Art Book, 1968), pp. 5; 17, fig. 7; 28; 34; 36; 46; 50.

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Past Rediscovered: French Paintings, 1800–1900, exh. cat. (Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1969), front and back covers (details); pp. 38–39, cat. 7 (ill.).

Robert Rosenblum, “The Nineteenth-Century Franc Revalued,” in Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Past Rediscovered: French Paintings, 1800–1900, exh. cat. (Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1969), p. 19.

Robert Rosenblum, “The 19th-Century Franc Revalued,” Art News 68, 4 (Summer 1969), front cover (detail); pp. 5 (ill.); 60.

Charles C. Cunningham and Satoshi Takahashi, Shikago bijutsukan [Art Institute of Chicago], Museums of the World 32 (Kodansha, 1970), pp. 62, pl. 49; 163.

John Maxon, The Art Institute of Chicago (Abrams, 1970), pp. 95 (ill.), 278.

Linda Nochlin, Realism, Style and Civilization (Penguin, 1971), pp. 168; 169, fig. 103; 264.

“Summer Gallery Talks,” Calendar of the Art Institute of Chicago 65, 3 (May–Aug. 1971), p. 18.

“Lecturer’s Choice,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 67, 3 (May–June 1973), p. 11.

“Lecturer’s Choice,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 67, 4 (Jul.–Aug. 1973), p. 11.

Lydie Huyghe, “Notices Bio-Bibliographiques,” in René Huyghe, La relève du réel: La peinture française au XIXe siècle; Impressionisme, symbolisme (Flammarion, 1974), p. 431.

René Huyghe, La relève du réel: La peinture française au XIXe siècle; Impressionisme, symbolisme (Flammarion, 1974), p. 154, no. 133 (ill.).

Gaëtan Picon, Émile Zola: Le bon combat, de Courbet aux impressionnistes (Hermann, 1974), pp. 189, 243.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, “Caillebotte’s Pont de l’Europe: A New Slant,” Art International: The Lugano Review 18, 4 (Apr. 20, 1974), pp. 29, fig. 5; 41, 58.

M. Therese Southgate, “About the Cover,” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 232 (Apr. 14, 1975), front cover (ill.).

Marie Berhaut, introduction to J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, with contributions by J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Marie Berhaut, Peter Galassi, and Hilarie Faberman, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1976), p. 15.

Peter Galassi, “Caillebotte’s Method,” in J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, with contributions by J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Marie Berhaut, Peter Galassi, and Hilarie Faberman, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1976), pp. 192, 193, 199–200, 201 (ill.), 202–06.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, “Caillebotte: An Evolving Perspective,” in J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, with contributions by J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Marie Berhaut, Peter Galassi, and Hilarie Faberman, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1976), pp. 47, 56, 57.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, with Hilarie Faberman, “Gustave Caillebotte: A Biography,” in J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, with contributions by J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Marie Berhaut, Peter Galassi, and Hilarie Faberman, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1976), pp. 36, 40, 46.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Peter Galassi, “Caillebotte’s Space,” in J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, with contributions by J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Marie Berhaut, Peter Galassi, and Hilarie Faberman, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1976), pp. 60, 62, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, with contributions by J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Marie Berhaut, Peter Galassi, and Hilarie Faberman, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1976), pp. 23, cat. 25 (ill.); 74; 106; 108; 110–13, cat. 25 (ill.); 116; 119; 122; 129; 133; 210–11; 212–13; 214–16.

Kirk Varnedoe, “Gustave Caillebotte in Context,” Arts Magazine 50, 9 (May 1976), pp. 95; 96; 97, fig. 8; 98; 99.

Robert Rosenblum, “Gustave Caillebotte: The 1970s and the 1870s,” Artforum 15, 7 (Mar. 1977), pp. 47, 48 (ill.).

Alfred Werner, “Joys Forever?,” Art and Artists 11, 132 (Mar. 1977), pp. 5, 6–7 (ill.).
Marie Berhaut, “Gustave Caillebotte et le réalisme impressionniste,” L’oeil 268 (Nov. 1977), front cover (detail); pp. 42 (ill.), 43, 46.

Art Institute of Chicago, 100 Masterpieces (Art Institute of Chicago, 1978), pp. 96–97, fig. 53.

Marie Berhaut, Caillebotte: Sa vie et son oeuvre; Catalogue raisonné des peintures et pastels (Bibliothèque des Arts/Fondation Wildenstein, 1978), pp. 43–45 (ill.); 98–99, cat. 52 (ill.); 249; 261.

J. Patrice Marandel, The Art Institute of Chicago: Favorite Impressionist Paintings (Crown, 1979), pp. 76–77 (ill.).

J. Patrice Marandel, “New Installation of Earlier Paintings,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 73, 1 (Jan.–Feb. 1979), p. 15.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, “In Detail: Gustave Caillebotte’s The Streets of Paris on a Rainy Day,” Portfolio 1, 5 (Dec. 1979–Jan. 1980), front cover (detail); pp. 3 (detail), 4, 42, 43 (ill.), 45–46, 47 (detail).

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism (Abbeville, 1980), pp. 133; 166 (ill.); 167 (detail).

Jennifer A. Martin Bienenstock, “Childe Hassam’s Early Boston Cityscapes,” Arts Magazine 55, 3 (Nov. 1980), p. 170.

Dennis Paul Costanzo, “Cityscape and the Transformation of Paris during the Second Empire” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1981), pp. 298–99; 302; 309; 315; 466, pl. 222.

Patricia Failing, “The Objects of Their Affection,” Art News 81, 9 (Nov. 1982), p. 124 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Pocket Guide to the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago, 1983), pp. 8 (ill.); 25, no. 28 (ill).

T. J. Clark, The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers (Knopf, 1984), pp. x; 15, fig. 5.

Robert Rosenblum and H. W. Janson, 19th-Century Art (Abrams, 1984), pp. 342, pl. 61; 365.

Art Institute of Chicago, Seibu Museum of Art, Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, and Fukuoka Art Museum, Shikago bijutsukan insho-ha ten [The Impressionist tradition: Masterpieces from the Art Institute of Chicago], trans. Akihiko Inoue, Hideo Namba, Heisaku Harada, and Yoko Maeda, exh. cat. (Nihon Nippon Television Network, 1985), pp. 20, 21 (ill.).

Michael Bockemühl, “Innocence of the Eye and Innocence of the Meaning: Zum Problem der Wirklichkeit in der realistischen Malerei von Gustave Caillebotte,” Modernität und Tradition: Festschrift für Max Imdahl zum 60 Geburtstag, ed. Gottfried Boehm (Fink, 1985), pp. 13; 15, fig. 3; 31, n. 4; 32, n. 11; 33, n. 22.

Richard R. Brettell, “The ‘First’ Exhibition of Impressionist Painters,” in The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, ed. Charles S. Moffett, exh. cat. (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), pp. 196–97.

Chantal Georgel, La rue (Hazan, 1986), p. 75.

Charles S. Moffett, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, with the assistance of Ruth Berson, Barbara Lee Williams, and Fronia E. Wissman, exh. cat. (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), pp. 203; 208–09, cat. 38 (ill.).

Mark Stevens, “When Impressionism Was New,” Newsweek, Feb. 3, 1986, p. 71 (ill.).

Richard R. Brettell, French Impressionists (Art Institute of Chicago/Abrams, 1987), pp. 44 (detail), 45–46, 47 (ill.), 117.

Anthea Callen, Techniques of the Impressionists (New Burlington, 1987), pp. 92, 94 (ill.).

Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte (Yale University Press, 1987), pp. 2; 4; 11; 18; 80; 84; 88; 89, pl. 18; 90; 91 (detail); 92; 93 (detail); 94–95; 110; 176; 187–91; 206; 207.

Michael Findlay, “The Caillebotte Bequest,” Christie’s 8, 4 (Feb.–Mar. 1987), p. 3 (ill.).

Kathleen Adler, Unknown Impressionists (Phaidon, 1988), pp. 8; 70; 78, pl. 64.

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood and Katharine C. Lee (Art Institute of Chicago/New York Graphic Society/Little, Brown, 1988), pp. 9, 58 (ill.).

Robert L. Herbert, Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society (Yale University Press, 1988), pp. 20; 22, pl. 26.

John Milner, The Studios of Paris: The Capital of Art in the Late Nineteenth Century (Yale University Press, 1988), pp. 163; 164, pl. 189.

Belinda Thomson and Michael Howard, Impressionism (Bison, 1988), p. 36 (ill.).

Kirk Varnedoe, “Late Recognition for One of the Original Impressionists,” Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb. 3, 1988, p. B27 (ill.).

E. A., “Impressions of Caillebotte,” Connoisseur 218, 915 (Apr. 1988), p. 48 (ill.).

Jack Perry Brown, “The Return of the Salon: Jean Gérôme in the Art Institute,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 15, 2 (1989), p. 157.

Jean Chardeau, Les dessins de Caillebotte (Hermé, 1989), pp. 9, 12, 62–63 (ill.), 64 (detail), 66 (detail), 67 (detail), 68 (detail), 70 (detail).

Anne Distel, “Charles Deudon (1832–1914), collectionneur,” Revue de l’art 86 (1989), p. 61, n. 16.

Kirk Varnedoe, “Les dessins de Gustave Caillebotte,” in Jean Chardeau, Les dessins de Caillebotte (Hermé, 1989), p. 7.

David McCracken, “Picking Chicago’s Top Art Hits,” Chicago Tribune, Aug. 18, 1989, p. 7.3 (ill.).

Norma Broude, “A World in Light: France and the International Impressionist Movement, 1860–1920,” in World Impressionism: The International Movement, 1860–1920, ed. Norma Broude (Abrams, 1990), pp. 18, pl. 12; 19.

William H. Gerdts, “Impressionism in the United States,” in World Impressionism: The International Movement, 1860–1920, ed. Norma Broude (Abrams, 1990), p. 57.

John Milner, Atelier d’artistes: Paris, capital des arts à la fin du XIXe siècle, trans. Béatrix Blavier (Du May, 1990), p. 155 (ill.).

Katsumi Miyazaki, Insho-ha no miryoku [Attractions of Impressionism], Great History of Art (Dohosha Shuppan, 1990), pp. 92–93 (ill.), 143 (ill.).

John Russell Taylor, Impressionist Dreams: The Artists and the World They Painted (Barrie & Jenkins, 1990), p. 36 (ill.).

Christopher Andreae, “Gustave Caillebotte’s ‘New’ Paris,” Christian Science Monitor, Jan. 29, 1990, pp. 16, 17 (ill.).

Michael Boodro, “Art and Fashion: A Fine Romance,” Art News 89, 7 (Sept. 1990), p. 126 (ill.).

Jean des Cars and Pierre Pinon, Paris-Haussmann: “Le pari d’Haussmann,” exh. cat. (Pavillon de l’Arsenal, 1991), p. 313.

Bernard Denvir, Impressionism: The Painters and the Paintings (Studio Editions, 1991), pp. 244, pl. 233; 418.

Mary Ellen Jordan Haight, Paris Portraits: Renoir to Chanel; Walks on the Right Bank (Gibbs Smith, 1991), pp. 43 (ill.), 44.

Martha Kapos, ed., The Impressionists: A Retrospective (Hugh Lauter Levin/Macmillan, 1991), p. 119, pl. 39.

Michael F. Zimmermann, Les mondes de Seurat: Son oeuvre et le débat artistique de son temps (Fonds Mercator, 1991), p. 126, fig. 236.

Patrick Bade, Renoir (Studio Editions, 1992), pp. 16 (ill.), 142.

Hubert Beck, “Urban Iconography in Nineteenth-Century American Painting: From Impressionism to the Ashcan School,” in Thomas W. Gaehtgens and Heinz Ickstadt, American Icons: Transatlantic Perspectives on Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century American Art, Issues and Debates (Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities/University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp. 324; 326–27, fig. 5.

Richard R. Brettell, “Camille Pissarro and Urban View Painting: An Introduction,” in Richard R. Brettell and Joachim Pissarro, The Impressionists and the City: Pissarro’s Series Paintings, ed. MaryAnne Stevens, exh. cat. (Royal Academy of Arts, 1992), pp. xv; xvii, fig. 5.

Otto Friedrich, Olympia: Paris in the Age of Manet (HarperCollins, 1992), opp. 77 (ill.).

Kathleen Pyne, “Resisting Modernism: American Painting in the Culture of Conflict,” in Thomas W. Gaehtgens and Heinz Ickstadt, American Icons: Transatlantic Perspectives on Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century American Art, Issues and Debates (Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities/University of Chicago Press, 1992), p. 290.

MaryAnne Stevens, ed., Alfred Sisley, exh. cat. (Royal Academy of Arts, London/Musée d’Orsay/Walters Art Gallery/Yale University Press, 1992), p. 134.

Art Institute of Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago: The Essential Guide, selected by James N. Wood and Teri J. Edelstein, entries written and compiled by Sally Ruth May (Art Institute of Chicago, 1993), p. 154 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Treasures of 19th- and 20th-Century Painting: The Art Institute of Chicago, with an introduction by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Abbeville, 1993), pp. 6, 21, 69 (ill.), 325.

Gloria Groom, Édouard Vuillard: Painter-Decorator; Patrons and Projects, 1892–1912 (Yale University Press, 1993), p. 171, pl. 271.

Charles Harrison, “Impressionism, Modernism, and Originality,” in Francis Frascina et al., Modernity and Modernism: French Painting in the Nineteenth Century, Modern Art: Practices and Debates (Yale University Press/Open University, 1993), pp. 158; 159, pl. 150; 169.

Jean-Marie Baron, Caillebotte: Impressionniste (Herscher, 1994), pp. 24–25 (ill.).

Marie Berhaut, Gustave Caillebotte: Catalogue raisonné des peintures et pastels, with assistance by Sophie Pietri (Wildenstein Institute, 1994), pp. 33; 34; 92–93, cat. 57 (ill.); 282.

Éric Darragon, Caillebotte, Tout l’art (Flammarion, 1994), pp. 59, 60–61 (ill.), 62, 131, 147.

Anne Distel, “Chronologie,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), p. 353.

Anne Distel, “Gustave Caillebotte, peintre, mécène et collectionneur,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), pp. 23; 30, n. 49.

Anne Distel, “Naissance d’un impressionniste,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), p. 96.

Anne Distel, “Yerres,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), pp. 104, 110.

Anne Distel and Rodolphe Rapetti, “Au Petit Gennevilliers,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), p. 303.

Bernhard Geyer, Scheinwelten: Die Geschichte der Perspektive (E. A. Seemann, 1994), pp. 77, 79 (ill.).

Gloria Groom, “Fleurs,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), p. 347.

Gloria Groom, “Intérieurs et portraits,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), pp. 217, n 44; 235; 247.

Jean-Jacques Lévêque, Gustave Caillebotte: L’oublié de l’impressionnisme, 1848–1894 (ACR Édition, 1994), pp. 99–101 (ill.).

Rodolphe Rapetti, “Paris, vu d’une fenêtre,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), p. 182.

Julia Sagraves, “La rue,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), pp. 128–129 (ill.); 130; 136–139; 146; 148; 152–156, cat. 35 (ill.).

Kirk Varnedoe, “Cherchez l’intrus: Une brève historiographie des changements de situation de Caillebotte dans l’histoire de l’art,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, trans. Jeanne Bouniort, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), pp. 14–15.

H. Barbara Weinberg, Doreen Bolger, and David Park Curry, American Impressionism and Realism: The Painting of Modern Life, 1885–1915, with the assistance of N. Mishoe Brennecke, exh. cat. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York/Abrams, 1994), pp. 12; 174; 175, fig. 160.

Marie-Amélie Anquetil, “Caillebotte: Peintre et cinéaste,” Caillebotte, Dossier de l’art 20 (Sept. 1994), pp. 51, 54, 56, 60.

Marie-Amélie Anquetil, “Dans les allées d’une oeuvre,” Caillebotte, Dossier de l’art 20 (Sept. 1994), pp. 12–13 (ill.).

Jérôme Coignard, “Caillebotte: Le blues des grands boulevards,” Beaux-arts 126 (Sept. 1994), front cover (detail); pp. 3 (ill.), 58–59 (detail), 64, 68.

Charles Storch, “Not All Art Institute Visitors Want to Pore Over New ‘Rainy Day,’” Chicago Tribune, Sept. 14, 1994, p. 20.

Russell Ash, ed., Impressionists’ Seasons (Pavilion, 1995), pp. 72–73 (ill.).

Albert Boime, Art and the French Commune: Imagining Paris after War and Revolution, Nineteenth-Century Art, Culture, and Society (Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. xii; 92, fig. 63.

Anne Distel, “The Birth of an Impressionist,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), p. 52.

Anne Distel, “Chronology,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), p. 313.

Anne Distel, “Introduction: Caillebotte as Painter, Benefactor, and Collector,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), pp. 20; 26, n. 49.

Anne Distel, “Yerres,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), pp. 60, 66.

Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), front cover (detail); p. 11.

Anne Distel and Rodolphe Rapetti, “Petit Gennevilliers and Argenteuil,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), p. 291.

Gloria Groom, “Floral Still Lifes,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), p. 309.

Gloria Groom, “Interiors and Portraits,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), pp. 190, n. 43; 196; 209.

David P. Jordan, Transforming Paris: The Life and Labors of Baron Haussmann (Free Press, 1995), opp. p. 328 (ill.).

Rodolphe Rapetti, “Paris Seen from a Window,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), p. 145.

Julia Sagraves, “The Street,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), pp. 88; 92; 94–98; 99; 100; 101; 110; 112; 116–22, cat. 35 (ill.).

Kirk Varnedoe, “Odd Man In: A Brief Historiography of Caillebotte’s Changing Roles in the History of Art,” in Anne Distel, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapetti, with Julia Sagraves and an essay by Kirk Varnedoe, Gustave Caillebotte: Urban Impressionist, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), pp. 13, 14.

“Historia del impresionismo,” Saber ver: Lo contemporáneo del arte 20 (Jan.–Feb. 1995), p. 53 (ill.).

Alan Artner, “Urban Landscapes,” Chicago Tribune Magazine, Feb. 12, 1995, p. 26 (ill.).

Richard Brettell, “Gustave Caillebotte and ‘The New Painting’: A Centennial Review,” Apollo 142, 406 (Dec. 1995), pp. 56; 57, fig. 4; 58.

Ruth Berson, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886; Documentation, vol. 1, Reviews (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco/University of Washington Press, 1996), pp. 117, 124, 125, 132, 135, 139, 142, 144, 145, 146, 148, 152, 156, 158–59, 163, 164, 165, 167, 169, 173, 175, 176, 183, 187, 188, 190, 191.

Ruth Berson, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886; Documentation, vol. 2, Exhibited Works (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco/University of Washington Press, 1996), pp. 69, 85 (ill.).

Robert Boardingham, Impressionist Masterpieces in American Museums (Hugh Lauter Levin, 1996), pp. 68–69 (ill.), 70.

Patty Lurie, Guide to Impressionist Paris (Lilburne/Parigramme, 1996), pp. 88–89 (ill.).

Marietta S. Millet, Light Revealing Architecture (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996), pp. 23; 24, fig. 1–31.

Ellen Williams, “Impressions of Paris,” Guggenheim Magazine (Fall 1996), pp. 46 (ill.), 47.

Kerry Brougher, Jeff Wall, exh. cat. (Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles/Scalo, 1997), p. 27 (ill.).

Anne Grevstad-Nordbrock, “A Stolen Kiss: Robert Doisneau’s Photographic Icon,” Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation 13, 2 (1997), pp. 192; 193, fig. 2.

M. Therese Southgate, The Art of JAMA: One Hundred Covers and Essays from the Journal of the American Medical Association (Mosby, 1997), pp. 4–5 (ill.).

Clare Kunny, “Taking the Tour: How a Museum Lecturer Looks at the Museum,” New Art Examiner 24, 5 (Feb. 1997), pp. 36; 37; 38, n. 1.

Rose-Marie and Rainer Hagen, “Unter dem Regenschirm herrscht eine noble Einsamkeit,” Art: Das Kunstmagazin 10 (Oct. 1997), pp. 82–83 (ills.), 84 (detail), 85 (detail), 86 (detail), 87 (detail).

Lyn H. Lofland, The Public Realm: Exploring the City’s Quintessential Social Territory (Aldine de Gruyter, 1998), pp. 134; 135, ill. 5.12.

Juliet Wilson-Bareau, Manet, Monet, and the Gare Saint-Lazare, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Yale University Press, 1998), pp. 80; 86, fig. 76; 87; 90; 91; 105.

Juliet Wilson-Bareau, Manet, Monet, la gare Saint-Lazare, trans. Isabelle Taudière, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Yale University Press, 1998), pp. 80; 86, fig. 76; 87; 88; 90.

Warren Adelson, “Childe Hassam: Cosmopolitan and Patriot,” in Warren Adelson, Jay Cantor, and William H. Gerdts, Childe Hassam: Impressionist (Abbeville, 1999), pp. 12; 14–15, pl. 11.

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 1999), pp. 8–9, 54 (ill.).

Richard R. Brettell, Modern Art, 1851–1929: Capitalism and Representation (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 54, fig. 37.

Steve Edwards, Art and Its Histories: A Reader (Yale University Press/Open University, 1999), pp. 196; 197, fig. xix.

Andrea Frey, Der Stadtraum in der französischen Malerei, 1860–1900 (Reimer, 1999), pp. 151; 153; 160; 161; 163–64; 166; 167; 169; 170; 171; 172; fig. 56.

James Henry Rubin, Impressionism, Art and Ideas (Phaidon, 1999), pp. 44, fig. 21; 296–97.

Michael Fried, “Caillebotte’s Impressionism,” Representations 66 (Spring 1999), pp. 25, fig. 16; 26–27; 31; 44; 45.

Sotheby’s, New York, La Belle Epoque: Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture, sale cat. (Sotheby’s, New York, May 5, 1999), pp. 44, 45 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 2000), p. 55 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Treasures from the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood, with commentaries by Debra N. Mancoff (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 2000), pp. 15, 183, 204 (ill.).

Patrick Shaw Cable, “Questions of Work, Class, Gender, and Style in the Art and Life of Gustave Caillebotte” (Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 2000), pp. 11; 28; 31; 66; 67; 127; 146; 214; 244, fig. 1.

Renaud Temperini, La peinture française, under the direction of Pierre Rosenberg, vol. 2 (Mengès, 2001), p. 776 (ill.).

Patricia G. Berman, James Ensor: Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889, Getty Museum Studies on Art (J. Paul Getty Museum, 2002), pp. 20; 22–23, fig. 20.

Norma Broude, “Outing Impressionism: Homosexuality and Homosocial Bonding in the Work of Caillebotte and Bazille,” in Gustave Caillebotte and the Fashioning of Identity in Impressionist Paris, ed. Norma Broude (Rutgers University Press, 2002), pp. 124, 127.

Patrick Shaw Cable, “Caillebotte and Modern Realist Concerns during the First Impressionist Exhibitions,” Excavatio 17, 1–2 (2002), pp. 155–56; 166, fig. 2.

Pier Giovanni Castagnoli, Barbara Cinelli, and Maria Mimita Lamberti, De Nittis e la pittura della vita moderna in Europa (Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, 2002), p. 166.

Maria Mimita Lamberti, “Mitografie parigine nel secondo ottocento,” in Pier Giovanni Castagnoli, Barbara Cinelli, and Maria Mimita Lamberti, De Nittis e la pittura della vita moderna in Europa (Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, 2002), pp. 50–51 (ill.).

Sculpture Foundation, Solid Impressions: J. Seward Johnson, Jr. (Sculpture Foundation, 2002), p. 10 (ill.).

Sylvie Patin, L’impressionisme (Bibliothèque des Arts, 2002), pp. 134; 136, fig. 99; 298.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, “Caillebotte’s Pont de l’Europe,” in Gustave Caillebotte and the Fashioning of Identity in Impressionist Paris, ed. Norma Broude (Rutgers University Press, 2002), pp. 11; 15; 18, n. 7; 19, n. 11.

Richard R. Brettell, “A View from Portland: 110 Years of Modern French Art in Portland,” in Paris to Portland: Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Masters in Portland Collections, exh. cat. (Portland Art Museum, 2003), p. 30, fig. 2.

Corcoran Gallery of Art, Beyond the Frame: Impressionism Revisited; The Sculptures of J. Seward Johnson, Jr., with an essay by Petra ten-Doesschate Chu (Bulfinch, 2003), pp. 10 (ill.), 122 (ill.).

Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, Nineteenth-Century European Art (Prentice-Hall/Abrams, 2003), pp. 392, fig. 16.39.

Ann Dumas, Degas and the Italians in Paris (National Galleries of Scotland, 2003), pp. 15; 16, fig. 5; 23.

Michel Laclotte, The Art and Spirit of Paris (Abbeville, 2003), pp. 900–903 (detail); 904; 989, fig. 6.76; 997.

Henry Plummer, Masters of Light, vol. 1, Twentieth-Century Pioneers, Architecture and Urbanism (E ando Yu, 2003), pp. 50; 51, fig. 1.

Griselda Pollock, Vision and Difference: Feminism, Femininity, and the Histories of Art (Routledge, 2003), pp. 72; 73, fig. 3.2.

Christie’s, New York, Impressionist and Modern Art (Evening Sale), sale cat. (Christie’s, New York, Nov. 4, 2003), p. 44, fig. 6.

Stephanie L. Herdrich, “Hassam in Paris, 1886–1889,” in H. Barbara Weinberg, Childe Hassam: American Impressionist, with contributions by Elizabeth E. Barker et al., exh. cat. (Metropolitan Museum of Art/Yale University Press, 2004), pp. 43, fig. 37; 44.

Sharon L. Hirsh, Symbolism and Modern Urban Society (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 63; 64, fig. 24; 67; 79.

John House, Impressionism: Paint and Politics (Yale University Press, 2004), pp. 117; 118, pl. 107; 138.

Erik Mørstad, “Christian Krohg i Skagen: Et Norsk Perspektiv,” in Christian Krohg og Skagen, exh. cat. (Skagens Museum/Lillehammer Kunstmuseum, 2004), pp. 17; 23, fig. 1.

Rodolphe Rapetti, “Gustave Caillebotte e la Senna,” in Monet la Senna le ninfee: Il grande fiume e il nuovo secolo, ed. Marco Goldin, exh. cat. (Linea d’Ombra, 2004), p. 79.

H. Barbara Weinberg, “Hassam in New York, 1889–1896,” in H. Barbara Weinberg, Childe Hassam: American Impressionist, with contributions by Elizabeth E. Barker et al., exh. cat. (Metropolitan Museum of Art/Yale University Press, 2004), p. 58.

Christopher Lloyd, “Les dessins de Gustave Caillebotte,” in Juliane Cosandier, Caillebotte: Au coeur de l’impressionnisme, assisted by Sylvie Wuhrmann, exh. cat. (Fondation de l’Hermitage/Bibliothèque des Arts, 2005), pp. 43, 45.

Caroline Mathieu, “Gustave Caillebotte et le nouveau Paris,” in Juliane Cosandier, Caillebotte: Au coeur de l’impressionnisme, assisted by Sylvie Wuhrmann, exh. cat. (Fondation de l’Hermitage/Bibliothèque des Arts, 2005), pp. 27; 28; 29, fig. 3.

Nancy Forgione, “Everyday Life in Motion: The Art of Walking in Late-Nineteenth-Century Paris,” Art Bulletin 86, 4 (Dec. 2005), pp. 675, fig. 10; 676.

Marco Goldin, ed., Turner e gli impressionisti: La grande storia del paesaggio moderno in Europa, exh. cat. (Linea d’Ombra, 2006), p. 274.

Marni Reva Kessler, Sheer Presence: The Veil in Manet’s Paris (University of Minnesota Press, 2006), pp. xvii; xviii, fig. 1; 12.

Caroline Mathieu, “Eugène Haussmann und das Neue Paris,” in Die Eroberung der Strasse: Von Monet bis Grosz, ed. Karin Sagner, Matthias Ulrich, Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani, and Max Hollein, exh. cat. (Hirmer, 2006), p. 89.

Gabriel P. Weisberg, “The Urban Mirror: Contrasts in the Vision of Existence in the Modern City,” in Paris and the Countryside: Modern Life in Late-19th-Century France, exh. cat. (Portland Museum of Art, 2006), pp. 46; 47, fig. 35.

Ruth E. Iskin, Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting (Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 12; 66; 116–17; 118, fig. 48; 119–23; 124; 125–26; 130; 132; 244; 245; 246.

Robyn Roslak, Neo-Impressionism and Anarchism in Fin-de-Siècle France: Painting, Politics and Landscape (Ashgate, 2007), pp. 68; 69, fig. 3.3.

Clive Scott, Street Photography: From Atget to Cartier-Bresson (I. B. Tauris, 2007), pp. x; 51, fig. 12.

Peter Bürger, “Media Differences: Caillebotte and Maupassant as Storytellers,” in Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark, Dorothee Hansen, and Gary Hedin, Gustave Caillebotte, with additional essays by Peter Bürger et al., exh. cat. (Hatje Cantz, 2008), p. 27.

Daniel Charles, “Caillebotte and Boating,” in Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark, Dorothee Hansen, and Gary Hedin, Gustave Caillebotte, with additional essays by Peter Bürger et al., exh. cat. (Hatje Cantz, 2008), p. 112.

Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark, “Gustave Caillebotte: In the Midst of Impressionism; An Introduction,” in Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark, Dorothee Hansen, and Gary Hedin, Gustave Caillebotte, with additional essays by Peter Bürger et al., exh. cat. (Hatje Cantz, 2008), pp. 12; 13, fig. 3.

Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Kimbell Art Museum, 2008), pp. 2 (detail); 4; 19; 55; 56–57, cat. 18 (ill.); 85. Simultaneously published as Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, The Age of Impressionism at the Art Institute of Chicago, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 2 (detail); 4; 19; 55; 56–57, cat. 18 (ill.); 85.

Gary Hedin, “Radical Perspectives I: Visions of Modern Paris,” in Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark, Dorothee Hansen, and Gary Hedin, Gustave Caillebotte, with additional essays by Peter Bürger et al., exh. cat. (Hatje Cantz, 2008), p. 56.

Art Institute of Chicago, The Essential Guide (Art Institute of Chicago, 2009), pp. 216 (ill.), 286.

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James Cuno (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2009), pp. 9, 54 (ill.).

Richard R. Brettell, Paul Hayes Tucker, and Natalie H. Lee, The Robert Lehman Collection: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Paintings, vol. 3 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York/Princeton University Press, 2009), pp. 151; 152, fig. 5.
R. Samuel Roche and Aric Lasher, Plans of Chicago (Architects Research Foundation/University of Chicago Press, 2009), p. 45, fig. 4.7.

James Rondeau, “New Art/Old Museum: Contemporary Artists Engaging the Encyclopedia,” in Curating Now, ed. Helen O’Donoghue (Irish Museum of Modern Art, 2009), pp. 124, 140 (ill.).

Karin Sagner, Gustave Caillebotte: Neue Perspektiven des Impressionismus (Himer, 2009), pp. 12; 18–19 (detail); 30–31, pl. 1; 33 (detail).

John Russell Taylor, Exactitude: Hyperrealist Art Today, ed. Maggie Bollaert (Thames & Hudson, 2009), pp. 28 (ill.), 29.

Hartwig Fischer, Bilder einer Metropole: Die Impressionisten in Paris, ed. Sandra Gianfreda, exh. cat. (Folkwang/Steidl, 2010), pp. 126–27, cat. 11 (ill.); 302.

James H. Rubin, “Das impressionistische Stadtbild als Emblem der Moderne,” in Hartwig Fischer, Bilder einer Metropole: Die Impressionisten in Paris, ed. Sandra Gianfreda, exh. cat. (Folkwang/Steidl, 2010), pp. 75, 77.

Malcolm Park, “Three Street Drawings by Gustave Caillebotte,” Burlington Magazine 152, 1289 (Aug. 2010), pp. 536, fig. 30; 538.

Éric Darragon, “Gustave Caillebotte, une nouvelle peinture,” in Serge Lemoine et al., Dans l’intimité des frères Caillebotte: Peintre et photographe, exh. cat. (Flammarion/Culturspaces/Musée National des Beaux-Arts du Québec/Musée Jacquemart-André, Institute de France, 2011), pp. 36, fig. 1; 37; 64.

Burcu Dogramaci, Wechselbeziehungen: Mode, Malerei und Fotografie im 19. Jahrhundert (Jonas, 2011), pp. 28; 29, fig. 13.

Michelle Facos, An Introduction to Nineteenth-Century Art (Routledge, 2011), pp. 308; 309, fig. 12.1; 310.

André Dombrowski, “History, Memory, and Instantaneity in Edgar Degas’s Place de la Concorde,” Art Bulletin 93, 2 (June 2011), p. 199, fig. 6.

Colin B. Bailey, Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting, exh. cat. (Frick Collection/Yale University Press, 2012), pp. 150; 151, fig. 15; 154.

Gloria Groom, ed., Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York/Musée d’Orsay/Yale University Press, 2012), p. 291, cat. 93 (ill.).

Gloria Groom, ed., L’impressionnisme et la mode, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Skira Flammarion, 2012), p. 298, cat. 35.

Gloria Groom, “Spaces of Modernity,” in Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, ed. Gloria Groom, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York/Musée d’Orsay/Yale University Press, 2012), pp. 165, 166, 168.

Gloria Groom, “Les espaces de la modernité,” in L’impressionnisme et la mode, ed. Gloria Groom, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Skira Flammarion, 2012), pp. 46, 47.

Aileen Ribeiro, “Gustave Caillebotte, Paris Street; Rainy Day,” in Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, ed. Gloria Groom, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York/Musée d’Orsay/Yale University Press, 2012), pp. 184; 185 (detail); 188, cat. 93 (ill.); 189–95.

Aileen Ribeiro, “Gustave Caillebotte, Rue de Paris; temps de pluie,” in L’impressionnisme et la mode, ed. Gloria Groom, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Skira Flammarion, 2012), pp. 64, cat. 35 (ill.); 65–73.

Karin Sagner, “Gustave Caillebotte: An Impressionist and Photography,” in Gustave Caillebotte: An Impressionist and Photography, ed. Karin Sagner and Max Hollein, in cooperation with Ulrich Pohlmann, exh. cat. (Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt/Hirmer, 2012), p. 18, fig. 3.

Karin Sagner and Max Hollein, eds., in cooperation with Ulrich Pohlmann, Gustave Caillebotte: An Impressionist and Photography, exh. cat. (Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt/Hirmer, 2012), pp. 120, 181, 208, 220.

David van Zanten, “Looking Through, Across, and Up: The Architectural Aesthetics of the Paris Street,” in Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, ed. Gloria Groom, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York/Musée d’Orsay/Yale University Press, 2012), p. 154.

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by Douglas Druick (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2013), pp. 9, 54 (ill.).

Claude P. J. Ghez and Pietro Galifi della Bagliva, “Deconstructing Gustave Caillebotte’s Le Pont de l’Europe (1876),” in Gustave Caillebotte: Impressionist in Modern Paris, ed. Shimbata Yasuhide, exh. cat. (Bridgestone Museum of Art/Ishibashi Foundation, 2013), pp. 230, 240.

Shimade Norio, “Gustave Caillebotte and the Impressionist Exhibitions: Bonds of Trust with Renoir, Friendship with Monet, Conflict with Degas,” in Gustave Caillebotte: Impressionist in Modern Paris, ed. Shimbata Yasuhide, exh. cat. (Bridgestone Museum of Art/Ishibashi Foundation, 2013), pp. 22, 25, 26, 27.

Virginie Pouzet-Duzer, L’impressionnisme littéraire, Culture et société (Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 2013), pp. 287; 289, fig. 30; 349.

Kuraishi Shino, “Caillebotte and Photographic Sense of Vision,” in Gustave Caillebotte: Impressionist in Modern Paris, ed. Shimbata Yasuhide, exh. cat. (Bridgestone Museum of Art/Ishibashi Foundation, 2013), p. 271.

Shimbata Yasuhide, “Caillebotte and the Modern City of Paris: In a Time of Upheaval,” in Gustave Caillebotte: Impressionist in Modern Paris, ed. Shimbata Yasuhide, exh. cat. (Bridgestone Museum of Art/Ishibashi Foundation, 2013), p. 268.

Shimbata Yasuhide, ed., Gustave Caillebotte: Impressionist in Modern Paris, exh. cat. (Bridgestone Museum of Art/Ishibashi Foundation, 2013), pp. 102 (ill.), 257, 260, 261.

Shimbata Yasuhide, “Reexamining Gustave Caillebotte’s Young Man Playing the Piano,” in Gustave Caillebotte: Impressionist in Modern Paris, ed. Shimbata Yasuhide, exh. cat. (Bridgestone Museum of Art/Ishibashi Foundation, 2013), p. 44.

Elizabeth Benjamin, “All the Discomforts of Home: Caillebotte and the Nineteenth-Century Bourgeois Interior,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), p. 86.

Sarah Kennel, “Photograph and the Painter’s Eye,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), pp. 108 (detail); 110; 114–15; 116–17; 118; 264, n. 9.

Michael Marrinan, “Caillebotte’s Deep Focus,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), pp. 28, 31, 33–36.

Mary Morton, “Caillebotte in Contemporary Criticism,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), pp. 61–62, 63.

Mary Morton, with Camille Mathieu, Galina Olmsted, and George T. M. Shackelford, “Catalog,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), pp. 124; 125; 133, cat. 4 (ill.); 138.

Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), back cover, cat. 4 (detail); pp. 7, 19, 277.

George T. M. Shackelford, “Man in the Middle,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), pp. 40, 41, 45, 46–47, 48, 49, 55.

Caroline Shields, “Caillebotte’s Posthumous Reputation, 1894–1994,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), pp. 244; 267, n. 14; 248; 249.

Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, “Paintings of Modern Life: Representing Modernity in Baudelaire, Balzac, Zola, and Caillebotte,” in Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, with essays by Michael Marrinan, Alexandra K. Wettlaufer, Elizabeth Benjamin, Stéphane Guégan, and Sarah Kennel, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./Kimbell Art Museum, 2015), pp. 72, 73.

“Cat. 2: Paris Street; Rainy Day, 1877,” in Caillebotte Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, ed. Gloria Groom and Genevieve Westerby (Art Institute of Chicago, 2015).

Ownership History

By descent from the artist (died 1894) to his brother, Martial Caillebotte, and Marie Minoret (Martial’s wife), Paris, 1894. [1]

Placed by Martial Caillebotte, Paris, with his brother-in-law Georges Minoret, Château de Montglat, Provins, France, 1900. [2]

Returned to Albert and Geneviève Chardeau (daughter of Martial Caillebotte), Paris, 1950. [3]

Purchased by Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., New York, 1954. [4]

Sold by Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., New York, to Wildenstein and Company, 1964. [5]

Sold by Wildenstein and Company, New York, to the Art Institute of Chicago, 1964. [6]

NOTES

[1] According to Portland (Ore.) Art Museum, Paintings from the Collection of Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., exh. cat. (Portland Art Association, 1956), p. 47. See also fact sheet provided by Wildenstein and Company, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[2] According to Portland (Ore.) Art Museum, Paintings from the Collection of Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., exh. cat. (Portland Art Association, 1956), p. 47. See also fact sheet provided by Wildenstein and Company, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[3] According to Portland (Ore.) Art Museum, Paintings from the Collection of Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., exh. cat. (Portland Art Association, 1956), p. 47. See also fact sheet provided by Wildenstein and Company, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[4] According to J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, with contributions by J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Marie Berhaut, Peter Galassi, and Hilarie Faberman, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1976), p. 110.

[5] See Joseph Baillio, Wildenstein and Company, to Gloria Groom, Feb. 11, 2015, e-mail correspondence, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago, in which Baillio suggests that an agent working on Chrysler’s behalf may have facilitated the sale.

[6] See minutes from the meeting of the Committee on Earlier Painting and Sculpture of the Art Institute of Chicago, Nov. 25, 1964, and minutes from the meeting of the Board of Trustees, Dec. 21, 1964, both on file in Institutional Archives, Art Institute of Chicago.

BOURGEOISIE AND PROLETARIAT
(Art Institute of Chicago)

French Impressionism is Western art’s great bourgeois revolution. If that last phrase sounds like an oxymoron, it’s only because 150 years of over-simplified Marxism and two centuries of bourgeois dominance have obscured the essentially revolutionary nature of the middle class. Marx and Engels, writing in the middle of the nineteenth century, wax almost poetic when describing the revolutionary effects of bourgeois capitalism: "All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real conditions of life and his relations with his kind."1 Consider for a moment exactly what the bourgeoisie accomplished, and you will understand the awe of the founders of Communism. Over the period stretching from 1500 to 1850, and most dramatically during the English, American and French revolutions, the rising middle class overturned an entire social, economic and political order associated with monarchy and feudalism, replacing it with the very different hierarchies of capitalism and republican government. Likewise, Impressionism and its artistic successors ultimately supplanted the grand tradition of French art, with its canon of aristocratically-approved subjects from mythology, history and religion, replacing it with a new kind of painting, an art of, by and for the bourgeoisie. Middle class themselves–more or less: Cassatt more, Renoir less–the Impressionists painted scenes of bourgeois life and found their patrons among the new monied class rather than the old titled one.

Gustave Caillebotte was in some ways the most bourgeois Impressionist of them all. His father made a fortune manufacturing beds and bedding for the French military and then made even more money when Napoleon III’s rebuilding of central Paris transformed his factory space into profitable rental property. This inherited wealth enabled Caillebotte to be both a member and a principal patron of the Impressionist group. He bought their paintings at a time when few others did, frequently gave them money for living expenses, helped organize their exhibitions, and ultimately ensured their immortality by bequeathing his personal collection to the French government (the Caillebotte bequest is the core of the great Impressionist collection now displayed at the Musée D’Orsay). More than just the sugar daddy of Impressionism, Caillebotte was a serious and talented painter who created a few of the movement’s most original images: Paris Street, Le Pont de L’Europe, Boulevard Seen from Above and Young Man at his Window among them. His ample leisure time was spent enjoying the very activities the Impressionists celebrated on canvas: sailing, rowing, gardening, walking the streets of Paris. The well-dressed, top-hatted man strolling briskly across the bridge in Caillebotte’s Pont de L’Europe may be a self-portrait of the artist as flaneur, a nineteenth-century Parisian type mentioned with ritualistic regularity in discussions of Impressionist art (this essay is obviously no exception). The flaneur is a man of fashion and leisure, a dandified, haut-bourgeois stroller who wanders the streets and boulevards of Paris, constantly taking mental notes, storing up visual impressions that he will later transform into stories, poems, drawings or paintings.

Paris Street; Rainy Day, first exhibited along with Le Pont de L’Europe at the third Impressionist exhibition, is a flaneur’s-eye view of an ordinary slice of bourgeois life. In this monumentally large painting (about 9 feet wide and 7 feet high), Caillebotte places us on a rain-soaked sidewalk looking toward the Place de Dublin, an intersection of eight streets near the Gare St. Lazare–and just up the street from the Pont de l’Europe. Directly in front of us, a fashionably dressed bourgeois couple pointedly glance away from the half-cropped man walking into the picture at right. Apparently, a snub is in progress, but not for long. In less than a second, the couple will be forced to acknowledge the man’s presence after their umbrellas collide. So much for the foreground anecdote, and if that were the totality of the painting, this work would delay us no further. But we do keep looking, caught by the strangeness of this seemingly ordinary scene: how it appears balanced even though it’s obviously asymmetrical (three large figures in the right foreground versus a large patch of empty street to the left); how the foreground seems to tilt up toward us while the background rushes dramatically away. Most of all, we are drawn into the setting, this odd Parisian place named for the capital of Ireland. While this intersection may look quaint and typically ‘Parisian’ to our eyes, we must try to see the Place de Dublin through the eyes of 1877 when it was a new place–aggressively, shockingly new.

We are in the heart of the ultramodern Paris built during the Second Empire by order of Napoleon III and designed by his all-powerful Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. Their stated goal was to facilitate the flow of people and commerce through Paris by creating a series of broad, straight boulevards linking the main rail stations and intersections. The wider streets would also bring light and air to the crowded city, improving the living conditions of residents. But of course there were also darker motivations. It was hardly a coincidence that some of Haussmann’s streets plowed through slum areas that were notorious hotbeds of urban radicalism. The Parisian popular revolts of 1830 and 1848 had brought down two successive French governments, so Napoleon III knew that if he wished to rule for more than a few years he would have to break up the urban lower class. Accordingly, he and Haussmann destroyed their streets, pulled down their houses and constructed uniform five- and six-story blocks of apartments (like those in Caillebotte’s painting) on both sides of the new streets. Rents were predictably increased and the former occupants forced into suburban exile. The proletariat was driven out and the bourgeoisie moved in. Today in American cities we call it ‘gentrification’; Napoleon III’s critics coined a more specific term: Haussmannization. The transformation of Parisian architecture and the creation of sites like the Place de Dublin went hand in hand with the bourgeois capitalist takeover of central Paris. (The process was also, we should not forget, one of the sources of Gustave Caillebotte’s wealth.) The city was changed forever, but Louis Napoleon didn’t survive long enough to enjoy it. His feeble regime collapsed after its disastrous defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, and the subsequent urban revolt known to history as the Paris Commune suggests that his efforts to destroy urban dissent were also abysmal failures. Indeed, in an irony that Karl Marx could have predicted, the workers imported to build Haussmann’s streets swelled the ranks of the rebels. Haussmann’s wide, straight streets probably did aid the government troops in their incredibly bloody suppression of the Commune, but by that point the Baron and his hapless Emperor were out of the picture, and the bourgeois Third Republic that would govern France until 1940 had begun.

In Paris Street, painted just six years after the suppression of the Commune, the authoritarian architecture of Napoleon III has become a symbol of bourgeois conformity. Identically dressed people carrying identical umbrellas walk along identical streets lined with identical buildings. The numbing sameness of the architecture suggests the boring similarity of the lives within. Both the place and the people are products of industrial capitalism; they have all been machined, stamped from the same mold. When Monet and Renoir painted the streets of Haussmann’s Paris a few years earlier, they aestheticized the starkness, concealing the insistent lines of the buildings behind screens of trees and energizing their scenes with vibrant, colorful brushwork. In this painting Caillebotte has none of that. His more linear approach and somber palette is matched to the subject matter, and there is not a hint of nature here. The green and brown wall at the right side of the painting is an ironic mockery of forest colors, and in the place of trees we have a prominent metal lamppost painted green. In this neighborhood, near a busy railroad station, there can be no escape into urban pastoral; all is starkly utilitarian.

My gaze is drawn to that huge building in the left background, a structure so massive that it anchors the entire left half of the painting and seems to balance the large figures in the foreground. This gigantic souvenir of the now-defunct Second Empire rises like an Egyptian pyramid into the cloudy sky–an impression furthered by the pyramidal shape outlined against the chimney at its apex. Like a pyramid, it is both monument and tomb: a symbol of Napoleon III’s rule as well as a reminder that his time has passed. It is also a reminder of the pharaonic pretensions that are characteristic of some French leaders, from the first Napoleon, whose invasion of Egypt launched an ‘Egyptian’ style in French decorative arts, to Mitterrand with his huge, dismal Bibliothèque and his wind tunnel Grand Arch at La Défense. Coincidentally, the most successful Mitterrand-era project is also a pyramid: the new entrance to the Louvre, both a suitably monumental prelude to one of the world’s great art collections and an admirable solution to the problem of devising a central entrance that connects all three of the palace’s enormous wings. But the pyramid in Caillebotte’s painting is considerably less aesthetically pleasing than I.M. Pei’s. It is also, importantly, a huge apartment house. The monuments of Napoleon III have become the homes of the triumphant bourgeoisie.

We must note, however, that the world of Caillebotte’s painting is not entirely bourgeois. As in his Young Man at His Window, where closer examination reveals several figures and carriages in what looks at first like a scene of whitewashed urban desolation, a closer look at Paris Street reveals the presence of the working class. Without exception, these workers are in the background of the painting and they are umbrella-less, exposed to the weather. On the far left we see a top-hatted carriage driver; another driver is parked at the corner of the pyramid building. In the far distance to the left of the lamppost, a scaffold implies the presence of construction workers. In the right background, glimpsed between the shoulder and umbrella of the foreground bourgeois, a workman carries a ladder across the street. Significantly, none of the workers is completely visible; all are partly hidden by the umbrellas that function as class signs in this painting, badges of the bourgeoisie. Most dramatically, the man with the ladder is decapitated by the umbrella of the nearby woman preparing to step into the street. Even that distant scaffolding–a sign of proletarian presence–is intersected by two umbrellas. One of T.J. Clark’s criticisms of Impressionist painting in his influential book The Painting of Modern Life is that the Impressionists show industry (factory chimneys in the background of a landscape, for example) but not labor. We almost never see workers in Monet’s landscapes, and the paintings thus perpetuate the dominant ideology of their society, a discourse in which the messy facts of industrial labor are suppressed so that successful capitalists can masquerade as ‘self-made men’ and the affluent bourgeoisie can enjoy its leisure without considering the exploitation upon which affluence rests. The argument–and much of Clark’s excellent book–is too theory-driven for my Paterian tastes, and I bring it up here only to point out by contrast Caillebotte’s achievement. For in this painting he not only shows us capitalists and workers; he gives us multiple images of middle class people concealing the working class. His bourgeois strollers turn their backs on the workers and hide them with umbrellas, suggesting the strategies by which capitalist ideology conceals the reality of workers’ lives. The artist even implicates himself in this concealment by consistently placing the workers in the background, where they are overpowered by the comparatively huge foreground figures. Here we see Caillebotte the haut bourgeois casting a cold, analytical eye on his own class and catching them (and himself) in the act.

If we look long at Paris Street we begin to notice that this painting that seems as big and solid as a Haussmann building is actually riddled with glaring instabilities, carefully created gaps, multiple opportunities for deconstruction. Take the play of umbrellas across the painting. It seems at first to follow a strong diagonal that passes from the right foreground through the umbrella of the man crossing the street near the lamppost and continues down the street at left, but in fact when we come to the central man near the lamppost the scheme becomes very complex. The angle of his umbrella rhymes with that of the foreground man at far right, but the umbrella’s profile rhymes more closely with that at the far left edge of the painting. The central man’s stance rhymes both with that of the background worker with the ladder and (most comically) with the pair of legs visible in the background below the edge of the man’s own umbrella. Additionally, this central man’s form is echoed by the man without an umbrella making his way across the street in the left distance. So rather than following the expected diagonal, the composition radiates outward in several different directions, just as the eight streets radiate out from the central Place de Dublin. Haussmann’s obsessive architecture is inescapable.

Further evidence of instability lies in the central lamppost itself. The composition’s longest and most powerful vertical element, it is cropped at the top edge of the canvas and extends in reflection off the bottom, strongly dividing the painting into two remarkably different halves. What could be more solid, more stable? But even this lamppost is broken, sliced by the couple’s umbrella. Farther down, the man’s arm and coat hide the lamp’s contour, and at the bottom of the painting the reflection dissolves into a pattern of loose, visible brushstrokes (the work of the painter, like all work in the painting, is here both revealed (as paint) and partly concealed (as representation)). Remember Marx and Engels on life under bourgeois rule: "All that is solid melts into air..."

The work’s unusual perspective structure is yet another destabilizing factor. Drawing our eye in at least two different directions at once (down the two streets on either side of the pyramid building), this seem to owe more to the complex perspectives of painted panoramas–a major nineteenth-century popular art form–than to anything Caillebotte learned at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Overall, the work’s perspective creates an unsettling push-pull effect, the foreground seeming to tilt upward toward the viewer while the background recedes quickly away into the misty distance. The pyramid building embodies both these tendencies in itself: as the walls of the block draw us deeply back into space, the massive form also appears to push out toward the viewer, culminating in the flat plane of its corner facade lying parallel to the picture plane. Simultaneously approaching and retreating, the building is a metaphor for the barely concealed instability of Caillebotte’s entire construction, and thus it also suggests the social instabilities just below the surface of this oh-so-orderly bourgeois world.

A more emphatic image of these hidden social forces can be found in the left foreground, where the bourgeois figures on the right are contrasted with a large patch of empty paving stones. This passage was especially important to Caillebotte–he went so far as to make a separate oil study of the stones in preparation for the final work–so we should spend awhile questioning its significance. Predictably, the paving stones are yet another site of irregularity within apparent order. All are similarly shaped, but their placement is staggered, creating a series of irregular, step-like lines that curve toward the left. More importantly, paving stones–especially ones as prominently and elaborately displayed as these–would have had a very specific historical connotation to Parisians in 1877. They are a symbol of the Commune, when leftist revolutionaries ripped the paving stones out of Haussmann’s streets and used them to build barricades against the invading government troops. The carefully constructed opposition between paving stones and bourgeoisie in the painting’s foreground suggests a power and a threat. The stones, like the lower classes, are now back in their proper place. But they are like a volcano that only appears dormant. An explosion could come at any time. The workers could revolt; the stones over which these citizens stroll obliviously could be torn up again. This is the frightening possibility that must have lurked in the mind of every thoughtful bourgeois in the years after the Commune. Under their cool, businesslike demeanor they must have been wondering, When will the next explosion come?

The unbelievably brutal suppression of the Commune, during which approximately 17,000 Communards and their supporters were butchered by government troops on the streets of Paris–the French still remember it as la semaine sanglante, ‘the bloody week’–ensured that such an explosion would not come soon. But these atrocities, along with thousands of subsequent arrests and deportations, tore vast holes in the fabric of the Parisian population. The bourgeoisie won their city, but they also made it an emptier place. I think this is the significance both of the unoccupied patch of foreground street and of the much larger empty space at the center of this painting. This latter space is difficult to see because Caillebotte and his bourgeois walkers hide it well, but if we look closely we notice that there’s a huge unoccupied space in the middle of this work. It stretches from the foreground couple back to the two women crossing the street in the background, from the stroller near the gaslight back to the other man whose legs are visible beneath the stroller’s umbrella, from the couple with their backs to us in the middle of the street at left all the way to the right side of the painting. Like the workers, this empty space is partly hidden but still noticeable. In conjunction with the emptiness in the foreground, I read this central gap as Caillebotte’s acknowledgment that something crucial, something literally central, has been lost in the Paris of the Third Republic. Whether it’s the working class, the spirit of revolution, or simply all those dead Communards, something has gone out of Caillebotte’s Paris. There is an emptiness at the center of things that the bourgeoisie can neither fill nor conceal. It is a nothingness to match the sameness of the architecture, the gray-green blandness of the palette and the rainy, overcast gloom of the day.

Why did Caillebotte choose this intersection over all the others in Haussmann’s Paris? The answer may lie in those ubiquitous umbrellas, those products middle class people purchase to protect themselves from reality. Each of the umbrellas consists of eight steel ribs arranged around a central pole. The Place de Dublin is likewise a spot where eight streets radiate out from a single intersection. There is an obsessive hub-and-spoke geometry to this painting, made explicit in the carriage wheel prominently featured at left. It is the conformist geometry of consumer capitalism. Art historians inform us that the steel frame umbrellas shown here were invented only three years earlier, so we are witnessing a very early example of the mass production / mass consumption uniformity that is now a fact of life in much of the world. (Today these fashionable Parisians would all be driving the same model car.) The shape of the factory-made umbrella is the shape of the Haussmann-made place. There is an overpowering sense here of capitalism stamping all of its products from the same mold, a sense that the bourgeoisie’s most important creation is a bland, seemingly inescapable conformity. But the enclosure is actually far from complete; there are gaps in capitalism’s structures. As we have seen, the center of the Place de Dublin is a vast empty space. In the words of Gertrude Stein: there isn’t any there there. It’s a center that cannot hold. It represents everything the bourgeoisie must turn its back upon and try studiously to ignore–most of all, perhaps, the meaninglessness at the centers of their lives. They can turn away from it, as the foreground couple does from the approaching man, but a collision is unavoidable. The structure of this painting is the structure of Paris in the 1870's, with all of its display and all of its concealment, its monumentality and its emptiness. In order to understand the painting we must look past the bourgeois surface and collide with that emptiness. We too must bump our way past the foreground couple and see the reality beyond.

    A PERSONAL POSTSCRIPT: Playing the flaneur 125 years after Caillebotte, I walk out of the Gare St. Lazare (still recognizably the station Monet painted), stroll around back to the Pont de l’Europe (no longer Caillebotte’s bridge; that steel-girdered monstrosity was demolished decades ago) and continue on to the Place de Dublin. It’s a sunny Saturday morning in April, and the intersection is quiet, almost deserted. The buildings in Caillebotte’s painting are still recognizable, though the Place itself is smaller than it appears in the artist’s perspective. Today, it’s just another Parisian intersection, punctuated with traffic lights. As elsewhere in the city, the streets are lined with parked cars; one corner boasts benches and a Wallace Fountain; a few trees are sprouting leaves that by summer will partly conceal the buildings, giving the Place a flavor more Monet or Renoir than Caillebotte. All in all, it looks as bourgeois as the Boulevard Haussmann. Caillebotte’s paving stones were never pulled up in revolt; they were paved over to facilitate the flow of automobile traffic. Standing on a corner, I take a few snapshots, trying to remember the exact angle of Caillebotte’s view. The final result is slightly off, but I do capture most of the buildings. Only upon returning to America and comparing the photo with the painting do I notice that the shop at the corner of the pyramid building, clearly labeled "Pharmacie" by Caillebotte, remains a pharmacy today. Now, however, the sign is an eye-catching electric green. Plus ça change...for better or worse.

1. Marx and Engels, Basic Writings, 10. The Communist Manifesto is an essential document for the understanding of Impressionist painting. The best extended commentary upon this connection (one that I believe never mentions Impressionism explicitly) is Marshall Berman's All That Is Solid Melts Into Air.

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